Journal of Cellular Biotechnology - Volume 5, issue 1
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Journal of Cellular Biotechnology is a peer-reviewed international journal for advancing research activities in the field of cellular biotechnology. It serves as a medium for the publication of full papers, invited reviews, short communications, technical notes and letters to the Editor-in-Chief on all aspects of cellular biotechnology. This comprises molecular biological topics covering biochemical, chemical, pharmacological or bioprocess engineering aspects, as well as the development of novel biomaterials. Therefore, cellular biotechnology differs from biology, biochemistry, and other basic life sciences by its emphasis on using the knowledge of bioscience to solve important practical problems. Papers presenting information of a multidisciplinary nature - not suitable for publication in a journal devoted to a single discipline - are particularly welcome.
Manuscripts submitted for the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology are expected to cover activities related to molecular diagnostics, the expansion of human primary cells for individualized therapies or drug testing, 2- and 3-dimensional co-culture techniques, cell line validation, tissue engineering, and stem cell biology for the treatment of human pathologies. This includes studies on the design of reactors and research on cellular biology and physiology of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo, and tissue. Of special interest is the rational manipulation of reactions through metabolic engineering techniques or specific reactor operations that lead to biomaterials with unique properties. Also, biochemical and physiological studies of metabolism and enzymes as relevant for tissue culture cells, investigations at the molecular level including transcription/translation control; design and engineering of products by molecular strategies; engineering of cellular modification and transport systems such as post-translational protein modifications as well as protein and metabolite secretion; molecular strategies of screening for new or modified products (e.g. pharmaceuticals or bioactive compounds). In addition, investigations in preclinical animal experiments are welcome.
The endeavour of the Editor-in-Chief and publisher of the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to cell-cell or cell-material interactions all over the world. The editorial board members of the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in cellular biotechnology is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He/she is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Abstract: The signal role in the cellular reactions of gaseous transmitters (NO and H2 S) is known. However there are only a few studies on the effect of NO on red blood cell aggregation (RBCA) and deformability (RBCD). However it remains virtually unexplored role of hydrogen sulfide as a signaling molecule in the analysis of RBC microrheology changes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes of red blood cell (RBC) microrheological properties under the influence of some gasotransmitter donors, based on the use of several red blood cell models. RBC microrheology was recorded after cell incubation with: 1)…NO donor – sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10, 50, 100 μM); 2) hydrogen sulphide donor – sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 10, 50, 100 μM). Cells were incubated for 30 min at 37°C. RBC suspension prepared in drug-free solution was used as a control sample. It was found that an exposure of RBCs both types of the gasotransmitter (GT) donors led to significant positive changes in the RBC microrheological properties. To study the dose-dependent effect of GT donors, RBCs were incubated in a medium with different GT donor concentrations. The results of the study showed that SNP was more effective at a concentration of 100 μM, while NaHS – at a concentration of 50 μM. In the study of the RBC ghost microrheology, it was found that SNP increased their deformability by 7% (p < 0.01), whereas NaHS much more, by 12%. Using a cellular model of RBC age fractions, it was found that GT donors moderately and positively influenced the deformability of all three age populations. However, the old erythrocytes more significantly responded to GTs by the increase in their deformability. Taken together obtained data allow us to conclude that both gasotransmitter donors positively affect RBC microrheology: significantly reduce their aggregation and moderately but statistically significant increase the cell deformability.
Abstract: EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase fulfils various functions in the development of cancers. Here we analyzed how regulation of EphA2 receptor influences metastatic properties in human melanoma cells in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo . Further, we investigated whether the effects are mediated by Src kinase/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling downstream of EphA2. Therefore, as model Mel-Juso and A375 melanoma cell lines showing different intrinsic EphA2 expression levels were used. To regulate EphA2 expression and activity, we used RNA interference, transgenic EphA2 overexpression, and stimulation of EphA2 activity by adding EphrinA1. Adhesion to fibronectin was increased in EphA2-silenced cells and decreased…in EphA2-overexpressing cells. Migration and planar motility were unaffected in Mel-Juso cells, but increased in EphA2-silenced A375 cells and decreased in EphA2-overexpressing A375 cells. Adhesion and migration were unaffected by EphrinA1-stimulation, indicating ligand-independent mechanisms. In vivo we detected increased lung metastasis in mice inoculated with EphA2-overexpressing Mel-Juso cells, substantiating the pro-metastatic effects of EphA2 in melanoma. Activity of Src kinase and FAK were unaffected in EphA2-silenced cells and in response to EphrinA1-stimulation. However, in EphA2-overexpressing A375 cells Src phosphorylation was increased, indicating enhanced Src activity. Together, these data suggest that EphA2 receptor promotes malignancy ligand-independently by mechanisms different from Src kinase/FAK signaling.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is the most malignant skin neoplasm due to early metastasis and resistance to currently available therapies. Inflammatory tumor infiltrate, particularly macrophages, are of outstanding importance for melanoma progression and therapy response. EphB4 receptor and its preferred ligand EphrinB2 are also associated with melanoma progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to systematically investigate the role of EphB4 for melanoma cell adhesion and migration, also in the presence of macrophages, considering experimental i) EphB4 overexpression, ii) EphB4 activation, iii) inhibition of EphB4 and EphrinB2 interaction, and iv) inhibition of EphB4 and…downstream signaling. RESULTS: Overexpression of EphB4 resulted in increased A375 melanoma cell adhesion showing EphrinB2 reverse signaling rather than EphB4 forward signaling being responsible. By contrast, A375 melanoma cell migration was not affected by EphB4 overexpression and effects due to modulation of EphB4/EphrinB2 signaling were inconsistent. In co-culture experiments macrophages (HL-60(M)) showed substantial influence on adhesion and migration of A375 cells. However, HL-60(M)-mediated effects could not be assigned to EphB4/EphrinB2 signaling, but rather to cytokine signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Under the used experimental settings EphB4 is important for adhesion, but not for the migration of A375 melanoma cells. Macrophages influenced adhesion and migration of melanoma cells but without significant involvement of EphB4/EphrinB2 signaling.
Abstract: Spirulina platensis, a multicelluar, photosynthetic prokaryote (algae) contains a high amount of proteins, vitamins and minerals superior to many foods as e.g. soybeans. Thus, Spirulina platensis was recognized as nutritious food by the United Nations World Food Conference. Due to the high amount of nutritive ingredients Spirulina has a long history as dietary supplement. In addition, spirulina platensis is also efficiently used as forage with known effects on flesh, egg and plumage color, milk yield and fertility. The versatile utilization of the alga can be explained on the one hand with the nutrient levels and on the other hand with…recognized effects as anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory substance. Therefore, this alga is named as “superfood”. Beyond, these algae convert carbon dioxide into organic substances and produce oxygen during their growth in alkaline and saline water thereby not wasting fresh water allowing the production in barren areas. Despite this diverse use of Spirulina platensis due to its beneficial properties, many basic mechanisms on a molecular and cellular level are not well understood and should be explored in future studies.
Abstract: The liver is the place of biotransformation, where drugs or other substances are metabolized. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (CYPs) play a prominent role in these processes and thus sufficient CYP expression levels are the prerequisite for physiologically relevant liver metabolism or toxicity studies. Human primary hepatocytes, the most popular in vitro liver model for such studies, have several limiting properties: poor availability, rapid dedifferentiation, substantial donor variability and restricted proliferation capacity in vitro . This prompted many research groups to develop alternative models for the investigation of biotransformation-related questions. The hepatoblastoma-derived HepG2 cell line is a highly proliferative and easy…to handle in vitro model, but has the disadvantage that expression levels of relevant CYP enzymes are dramatically downregulated. The generation of CYP-overexpressing HepG2 cells is a way to overcome this disadvantage and such cells were used as in vitro alternative to primary hepatocytes. Coding sequences of various CYP isoforms were transiently or stably introduced into HepG2 cells by using viral transduction or transfection reagents. With the frequently used adenoviral transduction, the level of recombinant enzyme activity usually is high within a time window of several days and simultaneous expression of several CYP enzymes is possible. High expression levels can also be achieved with lentiviral transduction which is stable upon virus integration into the host genome. Transient and stable CYP-expressing HepG2 cells serve as a convenient tool for toxicity studies and risk assessment of drugs or other substances undergoing biotransformation, clearance and drug-drug interaction. Furthermore, they can be used for rapid identification of CYP enzymes relevant to a specific reaction or screening for CYP enzyme inhibitors. The use of CYP-overexpressing HepG2 systems also have some disadvantages, such as the cancerous cell origin und their lack of other liver specific functions. The broad spectrum of possible applications of these CYP-expressing HepG2 cells, especially in the early phase of drug development, can quickly and easily provide important information about drug metabolism in the liver and toxicity behaviour of potential metabolites. In this way, unsuitable drug candidates can be excluded at an early stage of pharmacological studies in order to safe costs and to reduce in vivo animal trials.
Keywords: Biotransformation, Cytochrome P450, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, drug metabolism, HepG2, liver in vitro model, primary human hepatocytes, viral
Abstract: In static or low-flow conditions erythrocytes form linear or three-dimensional aggregates with characteristic face-to-face morphology, similar to a stack of coins, often called rouleaux formation. This aggregation is reversible and shear dependent (i.e. dispersed at high shear and reformed at low shear or stasis) and caused by a variety of macromolecules present in the blood plasma. The plasma protein fibrinogen is the major plasma component promoting red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in blood, with an almost linear relationship between aggregate size and plasma fibrinogen concentration. However, other plasma proteins are also reported to increase RBC aggregation, e.g. α 2-macroglobulin, immunoglobulin…M or G. In addition, there is evidence, that plasma lipids like cholesterol or triglyceride may influence the aggregation of erythrocytes. In this study we evaluated whether there is an independent influence of proteins and lipids on the RBC aggregation. Using a regression analysis, we analyzed the correlation between the fibrinogen-, α 2-macrogobulin-, immunoglobulin M-, Antithrombin III-, Protein C-, Factor VIII-, total cholesterol- and triglyceride concentration with RBC aggregation in blood samples from 2717 apparently healthy subjects or patients. An univariate analysis showed, that the only variable which correlates on a biologically relevant level is fibrinogen (r = 0.46). The multiple correlation coefficient corresponded to rmult = 0.589 what indicated that nearly 59% of the variation of the erythrocyte aggregation can be explained by the influencing factors used in this model. This clearly showed that there are additional factors which are involved in the process of erythrocyte aggregation and still are under discussion.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Imperatorin and osthol, the two coumarin derivatives from Apiacea family, have several anticancer activities. A large body of evidence demonstrates that these two coumarin derivatives regulates apoptosis, proliferation and invasion in different cancer types including ovarian, cervical, colon and prostate cancers as well as chronic myeloid leukemia etc., which are mediated by multiple signal transduction cascades. OBJECTIVE: In present study, the effects of imperatorin and osthol were compared with a known anticancer natural agent curcumin on 5-fluorourasil resistance in A549 cells. METHODS: Imperatorin (100–200 μM), osthol (100–200 μM), curcumin (100 μM) and/or 5-FU (64 μM)…were applied on NSCLC cell line A549 and human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2b) after a general concentration screening between 10 nM–1 mM and xCELLigence Real Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) was conducted to evaluate cytotoxic effects. RESULTS: 100 μM curcumin indicated cytotoxic effect in A549 cells and when 5-FU alone did not show cytotoxic activity, it was observed that the cytotoxic effect of curcumin appeared to be similar when combined with 5-FU. 200 μM imperatorin/osthol, when used alone or in combination with 5-FU, showed a stronger cytotoxic effect on both cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Imperatorin/osthol synergistically increased the efficacy of 5-FU in combination, but the same effect on healthy cells was observed as a limiting factor for future studies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC’s) are frequently used for different indications. Within the group of DOAC’s one representative is the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. In general, there are some clinical conditions where laboratory monitoring of DOAC’s can be important. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to establish a mass spectrometric method for the determination of rivaroxaban plasma levels from citrate plasma samples and to make some considerations about the clinical interpretation of the results. METHODS: To determine the rivaroxaban plasma levels a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization ion source was used…in combination with an ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography (UPLC) system. RESULTS: The results revealed that the mass spectrometric method is well suitable for the determination of rivaroxaban plasma levels in a routine laboratory. Last but not least the results from 36 patient samples showed that there is a wide variability within the peak and trough levels. The majority of patients showed trough levels above the safety threshold for surgical treatment in an emergency. CONCLUSION: For routine laboratories which already have a mass spectrometer it is a good option to apply this technique for the determination of rivaroxaban plasma levels.