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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: Rose hip is of great interest among food manufacturers and consumers because it contains compounds that give it a high antioxidant capacity. To determine the effect of the frozen storage process over the vitamin C content, total phenols, antioxidant capacity, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and other properties, rose hip pulp was stored at –5°C, –10°C, –15°C and –20°C. Also, the temperature of –18°C was considered in order to verify differences between the predicted and experimental rates at this commercial storage condition. The kinetics were modeled using the Weibull model, and their rates were correlated with the temperature using the log-logistic…model. Results showed that vitamin C, total phenols content, antioxidant content, and linoleic decreased while frozen. The degradation of vitamin C in rose hip pulp during frozen storage was lower than the degradation rate of the total phenols and the antioxidant capacity, respectively. Shelf life of frozen rose hip pulp was established to be 329.8 days at –18°C.
Keywords: Rose hip, pulp, frozen storage, Weibull, shelf life, phenols
Abstract: The winter planting system is based on the use of the bare-root plant. It is used extensively in many strawberry cultivation areas characterized by mild winters. Bare-root plants have disadvantages and plug plants represent a valid alternative to the traditional bare-root plant. This study, conducted in Southern Italy, investigated the changes in the fruiting cycle of bare-root and plug plants of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa ), with a focus on fruit quality. Bare root and plug plants for three strawberry genotypes were planted in fields and the differences in yield, quality traits and main bioactive compounds were evaluated. The…plants were grown in Scanzano Jonico – Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Yield per plant, fruit size, total soluble solids content, titratable acidity, flesh firmness, skin colour, antioxidant activity (TAC), total phenols (TPH), total anthocyanins (TACY), ascorbic acid content (AA) and phenolic profile were determined. The results confirmed that the start of the harvest for plug plants was significantly earlier than for bare-root plants and plug plants also had higher productivity. The fruit size of plug plants was initially larger than for bare root plants but became significantly smaller when the production flow decreased in May. Plant type did not affect flesh firmness, while the sugar content was lower in plug plants. The fruit colour brightness was higher for plug plants in the first part of the harvest but reduced significantly in the second part. TPH was lower for plug plants, compared to bare-root plants, in the first part of the harvest but higher in the second part, when the fruit size of plug plants decreased significantly. TACY showed a considerable variability and was more influenced by the genotype rather than by the type of plant. Also, TAC, being correlated with TPH, had higher values in plug plants in the second part of the harvest, coinciding with the decrease in size. The content of the most important classes of individual polyphenols (anthocyanins and ellagitannins) was on average higher in plug plants than in bare-root plants. In summary, the plug plant had an early yield start with a production concentrated in March and early April, which is suitable for Mediterranean areas, but the quality traits showed a lot of variability from year to year. Keywords:
Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, genotype, type of plant, F. x ananassa, nutraceutical properties
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in cover crops for orchards and vineyards to help control weeds and thereby reduce the need for tillage or herbicide applications. However, there is concern that cover crops may compete with the vines for mineral nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to study how two different soil management practices (tillage and cover crop) affected the nutrient content of clusters and leaves of table grape vines. METHODS: In 2015 and 2016, the effect of soil management practices on the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulphur in…leaves and clusters of Italia table grape vines (Vitis vinifera L.) in a vineyard located in Puglia (South-eastern Italy) was determined, throughout the growing season. RESULTS: Nutrient concentrations in leaves and clusters varied during phenological stages each growing season, and there were significant differences induced by the two soil management practices. The presence of cover crop increased the content of calcium and sodium in clusters and phosphorous and sulphur in leaves. No deficiencies were noticed in the two years and yields were similar regardless of soil management practices. CONCLUSIONS: This study, carried out in an irrigated table grape vineyard, showed that cover crops could be used as sustainable soil management strategies without significant influence on yield and fruit quality with respect to vines subjected to traditional tillage. Moreover, nutrient concentrations in leaves and clusters was almost similar in the two treatments with only few exceptions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Phytotherapy has an important role in the functional gastrointestinal and motility disorder prevention and treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aims of our study were to analyze the chemical composition and the antispasmodic activity of the dry black chokeberry ethanolic extract, waste extract and the juice in the isolated rat ileum. METHODS: The anthocyanins and flavonoids quantification was carried out by the spectrophotometric method using the HPLC instrument. The study examined the influence of the chokeberry preparations and cyanidin-3-O -galactoside, the main anthocyanin compound, on the spontaneous, acetylcholine and KCl-induced ileum smooth muscle contraction, as well as on…the contractions induced by histamine, CaCl2 and BaCl2 and contractions in the presence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME). RESULTS: In all the examined preparations, the most abundant compounds were anthocyanins, especially cyanidin heterosides. The highest content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was found in the chokeberry waste extract. Among the chokeberry preparations, the ethanolic extract had the highest flavonoid concentration. The chokeberry preparations and cyanidin-3-O -galactoside in a concentration dependent manner significantly relaxed the rat ileum spontaneous and induced contractions. The results demonstrated that the nitric-oxide pathway was not involved in the relaxant activity of the chokeberry extracts and juice. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that the chokeberry preparations were able to relax contractions in the isolated rat ileum.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The consumption of fruits, mainly berries, has been associated with beneficial health properties. These properties would be related to the quantity and quality of the metabolites present. Some native berries from the Andes, such as Andean elderberry, would be an important source of metabolites with bioactive properties. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate at the physico-chemical and metabolomic level the characteristics of the elderberry from four different high Andean regions, and to determine their bioactive potential through in vitro tests. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the evaluated characteristics according to the Region of procedence of the…fruit. Glucose was the main sugar for all berry samples, followed by fructose. Among the most important organic acids, citric and malic acid were found. Elderberry from Apurímac presented the highest content of total sugars and lower content of total acids in comparison to the samples from other procedences. UPLC-PDA results indicate that Junín elderberries presented the highest value of total phenolic compounds with high contents of flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and anthocyanins. Andean elderberry presented cyanidin 3-O -glucoside and cyanidin 3-O -sambubioside as main anthocyanins as well as their respective isomers. All samples showed inhibition activities against the different evaluated enzymes. Elderberries from Apurímac and Junín, displayed the lowest values of IC50 for the inhibition of α -amylase and α -glucosidase, while for the inhibition of lipase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-I) elderberries from Junín displayed the lowest IC50 values. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that Andean elderberry could be considered as an important source of bioactive compounds with properties that could be highlighted by the nutraceutical and functional food industries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Stable transformation, transient expression, and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) are powerful methodologies that allow exploration of gene function. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to apply these methodologies to strawberry leaves. Methods: the binary vectors pBIN19-sgfp , pBICdsGFP and pBIN61-P19 were transferred into A. tumefaciens EHA105 supervirulent strain by electroporation. The sgfp gene silencing was carried out in stably transformed GFP (green fluorescent protein) F. x ananassa Duch. cultivar ‘Pájaro’ strawberry plants by agroinfiltration. GFP-fluorescence was observed using a stereomicroscope (507 nm). RESULTS: We attained a GFP transgenic F. x ananassa plant that…expresses the functional protein in all the tissues during a complete and normal life cycle. In planta sgfp transient expression and silencing have also been achieved in F. x ananassa cv. ‘Pájaro’ leaves of wild type and GFP transgenic plants, respectively. Agrobacterium- mediated transient expression was visualized as high intensity green fluorescent spots as early as 7 days post-agroinfiltration (dpa), peaking between 10 and 14 dpa and persisting as long as 24 dpa. A knockdown GFP phenotype was achieved by silencing using a dsGFP hairpin. CONCLUSION: This work contributes significantly to the reverse genetics field in strawberry, might help to gain knowledge in the analysis of functional promoters and thereby allow protein expression and silencing of genes. This will help to develop resistant plants expressing plant defense elicitors or silencing pathogen receptors and/or negative regulators of plant defense.
Keywords: Fragaria x ananassa Duch., green fluorescent protein, in
planta monitoring, post-transcriptional gene silencing, strawberry, transgenesis, transient
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum L. has received considerable attention due to nutritional value of berries and its cultivation in Europe has attracted growing interest. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was characterization of Lycium barbarum L. berry cultivated in North Macedonia in terms of nutritional and functional properties and comparison with Lycium chinense M. variety. METHODS: Minerals, total proteins, sugars, antioxidant activity, fatty acids, carotenoids and polyphenols were determined and lipid indices were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis was used to describe variability of composition, while heat map to recognize the parameters significantly different for…varieties. RESULTS: Lycium barbarum L. cultivated in North Macedonia represents a rich source of K, Cu, Mn, P, Zn, Mg, Fe and antioxidant compounds. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linolenic acid) were dominant in oil resulting in very low atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. A variability of 35.1% was ascribed to minerals, carbohydrates and proteins, 22.3% to ω -6 fatty acids and lipid indices of oil, 19.4% to nutrients with antioxidant activity and 13.4% to ω -3 fatty acids (n-3 and n-3/n-6 ratio). CONCLUSIONS: Chemometric analysis highlighted significant differences in terms of inorganic nutrients, antioxidant capacity, proteins, sugar profile and lipid indices in Lycium barbarum L. compared to Lycium chinense M.
Keywords: Lycium barbarum L., Lycium chinense M., mineral nutrient, fatty acid, antioxidant activity, unsupervised chemometrics
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vaccinium is one of the largest genera (ca . 500 species) of Ericaceae, well known for its edible and ornamental uses. Although there is certain karyological knowledge, information about genome size (GS) is scarce in the genus. OBJECTIVE: The main goal is providing GS data for several Vaccinium species with prevalence in Europe and Western Asia and analysing global GS variation in the genus, considering available data and phylogenetic context. METHODS: New GS assessments were obtained by flow cytometry and chromosome counts were verified. Phylogenetic analyses (using nuclear ITS, and chloroplastic mat K…and ndh F) were performed by Bayesian inference and reconstruction of ancestral GS by maximum parsimony. RESULTS: We obtained GS data for five Vaccinium species (13 populations). Three species are reported for the first time. Values (2C) ranged between 1.16–1.47 pg at the diploid (2n = 24) and between 3.13–3.16 pg at the tetraploid (2n = 48) levels. The five species here investigated have been placed and analysed in a reconstructed phylogenetic background (including 68 taxa). CONCLUSIONS: GS values of Vaccinium can be considered “very small”. The preliminary reconstruction of ancestral GS would point to a reduction in Vaccinium , although more data is needed to establish global GS evolutionary trend in the genus.
Keywords: Berries, C-value, chromosome counts, flow cytometry, nuclear DNA amount, nuclear DNA content
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Arazá, a flavorsome berry rich in antigenotoxic and antimutagenic antioxidants (phenolics/carotenoids/flavonoids/ascorbic acid) could be used for preparing functional powdered instant-beverages. Moisture sorption can cause quality problems therefore a thorough analysis of powder sorption properties is required. OBJECTIVE: To study freeze-dried arazá moisture sorption behavior using maltodextrin or Arabic-gum as drying-aids and its effect on isosteric-sorption-heat, differential-entropy, mechanism controlling moisture-sorption, color, solubility and antioxidant content/activity. METHODS: To determine arazá/maltodextrin and arazá/Arabic-gum moisture-sorption capacities and their effect on powders physicochemical properties, samples were exposed to relative humidities ranging 11–76 and 10/20/40°C until reaching equilibrium. Changes in equilibrium…water content (Wc ), cold water solubility, antioxidant (polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid) concentration and activity were recorded. RESULTS: GAB model satisfactorily predicted Wm ; the samples monolayer-moisture concentrations were lower than 0.1 kg H2 O (kg dried matter)–1 indicating good powder stability. Thermodynamic properties/Wc relationships and the sorption process mechanism were determined. At 10/20°C arazá/maltodextrin had better color/solubility, higher total polyphenols/carotenoids/flavonoids and lower ascorbic acid contents than arazá/Arabic-gum, however, antioxidant activities were similar. Temperature/water activity (aw ) combinations for optimum color, solubility, antioxidant content/activity were 10°C/aw ≤0.11 (arazá/Arabic-gum) and 10°C/aw ≤0.23 (arazá/maltodextrin).
Abstract: Conventional and low-calorie rosehip leathers were developed by several drying processes: convective and vacuum drying, both with and without a preconcentration process, and combined with a stage of microwave finish drying. The aim of this study was to reduce the processing time and to improve quality retention, in comparison with the conventional convective drying. The product temperature and moisture content as a function of time were analyzed in each case. Color and ascorbic acid content were measured in the leathers, as indexes of organoleptic and nutritional quality, respectively. Total drying times varied widely, between 120 and 870 min, while diffusion coefficients…from 4.60 x10–10 to 52.3 x10–10 m2 /s were fitted. The color was mostly affected by a combined time-temperature effect, while ascorbic acid retention showed a dependence on the oxygen partial pressure during drying. The concentration process carried out before drying caused no improvement on the dehydration rate of further convective or vacuum drying nor on product quality. Microwave finish drying led to the lowest processing times though it was detrimental for color and nutritional retention of leathers at an absorbed power level of about 1 W/g. Vacuum drying resulted the best option in this research, as it implied shorter processing time and higher quality retention compared with convective drying.