Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis present postural instability when compared with healthy subjects. Although Schroth exercises therapy (SET) is broadly utilized, its effect on postural stability is still not clear. OBJECTIVES: To compare the two treatment periods of the SET for improving the postural stability indices and Cobb angle, and to examine the correlation between the Cobb angle and stability indices in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). METHODS: Twenty girls aged 10–16 years with AIS (study group) and 20 age-matched girls without AIS (control group) were examined. The Biodex Balance System was used to…evaluate the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI) in the study group before SET and one and three months after the therapy. A plain X-ray was used to measure the Cobb angle before and three months after SET. Stability indices and Cobb angle were measured only once for the control group. RESULTS: One-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that the three-month duration of SET was the most effective for improving OSI, APSI, and MLSI (p < 0.001). The significant proximities of OSI, APSI, and MLSI to the normal values post three months of SET were 29.65%, 24.07, and 20% respectively. The MLSI was robust and correlated with the Cobb angle (r = 0.85) three months post intervention. CONCLUSION: Stability indices and Cobb angles were highly improved after three months of SET compared to one month among AIS patients. The MLSI is the most substantial index correlated with the Cobb angle.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease primarily affecting the axial skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term effects of locoregional water-filtered infrared A radiation (sl-wIRAR) in the treatment of lower back pain in patients with axSpA. METHODS: Patients with active axSpA with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy undergoing a 7-day multimodal rheumatologic complex treatment in an in-patient setting were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG) receiving sl-wIRAR treatment of the back (2 treatments/day for 30 min each for 6 days) or to the control group (CG) receiving…no treatment. Primary outcome was a between-group difference in pain after sl-wIRAR therapy measured on a numeric rating scale (NRS) (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain). Secondary outcomes included an assessment of i) the onset and development of analgesic effects and an evaluation of whether sl-wIRAR ii) improved axSpA-specific well-being and iii) influenced serum cytokine levels. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were enrolled, completed the trial and were analyzed (IG: 36 patients, CG: 35 patients). In the IG, there was a statistically significant change (p < 0.0005) in pain level [NRS] (1.6 ± 1.9 [5; 2]) from baseline (4.1 ± 2.4 [0; 8]) to trial completion (2.6 ± 2.0 [0; 7]) and a significant difference to the CG (p = 0.006). In the IG there was a significant improvement in axSpA-specific well-being (BAS-G) (p = 0.006). A physiologically relevant change in serum cytokine levels could not be observed. CONCLUSION: sl-wIRAR treatment can be useful in the treatment of patients with active axSpA as it leads to a rapid reduction of pain.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although there are a few studies on the seasonality of facial paralysis, no studies have utilized internet data for this purpose. The use of internet data to investigate diseases and user-contributed health-related content is increasingly prevalent, and has earned the name “infodemiology”. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to use Google Trends data to investigate whether there is a seasonal variation in facial paralysis. METHODS: In this observational study, the search volume for the terms “facial paralysis” and “Bell’s palsy” for a total of 19 countries was queried from Google Trends, selecting the time…interval between January 2004 and October 2020. RESULTS: In the Cosinor analysis of data from a total of 19 countries, from both northern and southern hemisphere, a statistically significant seasonality was found in the search volume of facial paralysis. It was observed that facial paralysis searches peaked in spring in the northern hemisphere and in winter in the southern hemisphere. CONCLUSION: Internet search query data showed that facial paralysis has a seasonal variation, with peaks in spring for the northern hemisphere and winter for the southern hemisphere. Further studies are needed to understand the deviation between hemispheres and the cause of the peak in winter-spring season.
Keywords: Facial paralysis, Bell’s palsy, infodemiology, internet search, seasonality
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is a common condition that results in significant disability. To treat this dysfunction, Mulligan described sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs) as a manual therapy approach. However, only inconclusive short-term evidence exists for treating CGH with SNAGs. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effect of SNAGs in the treatment of CGH. METHODS: Fourty female patients ranging from 20 to 40 years with CGH were randomly assigned to two groups: 20 in a treatment group and 20 in a control group. SNAGs were applied to the treatment group while…the control group received placebo treatment. Both groups received their respective treatment for 20 minutes, alternately three times per week, for a total of 12 times in four weeks. The outcome measures were the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Participants were assessed at baseline and at the end of each week. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Independent t-testing was used to reveal changes between groups. One-way ANOVA was used to determine changes within groups. The level of significance was P < 0.05. RESULTS: Twenty participants (100%) in the treatment group and 17 (85%) in the control group had a history of headache aggravation with active movements or passive head positioning. There was no significant difference at baseline (p > 0.05), indicating that both groups were homogeneous at the time of recruitment. The p value (p < 0.05) showed a significant difference in pain and level of disability at three and four weeks (p < 0.05) in patients treated with SNAGs. However, the cervical range of motion (ROM) showed a statistically significant improvement in flexion and extension in the treatment group (p < 0.05) while there was no significant improvement in side flexion and rotation ROM in both groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study found that SNAGs were effective in reducing pain and neck disability and improved ROM in females with CGH.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Given the characteristics of the superficial trunk muscles that cross the chest and pelvis, their excessive contraction might limit chest mobility. OBJECTIVE: To examine the immediate effects of two types of trunk muscle exercises on chest mobility and trunk muscle activities. METHODS: Fourteen healthy men (age: 21.1 ± 1.0 years, height: 172.7 ± 5.6 cm, weight: 61.0 ± 7.1 kg, body mass index: 20.4 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ; mean ± SD) randomly performed…trunk side flexion and draw-in exercises using a cross-over design. The chest kinematic data and trunk muscle activities were measured before and after each intervention during the following tasks: maximum inspiration/expiration and maximum pelvic anterior/posterior tilt while standing. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis (P < 0.05). RESULTS: After the side flexion, upper and lower chest mobility significantly decreased, and superficial trunk muscle activity significantly increased during the maximum pelvic anterior tilt (P < 0.05). Additionally, after the draw-in, upper chest mobility significantly increased during the maximum pelvic anterior tilt (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased activity of the superficial abdominal muscles might limit chest mobility during maximum pelvic anterior tilt. Conversely, the facilitation of deep trunk muscles might increase upper chest mobility during the maximum pelvic anterior tilt.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many patients complain of chronic cervical radicular pain, and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is known to have a positive effect for alleviating neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we used ultrasound (US) guidance and compared the effects of monopolar PRF with those of bipolar PRF in patients with chronic cervical radicular pain refractory to repeated transforaminal epidural steroid injections. METHODS: Sixty-six patients with chronic cervical radicular pain were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: monopolar or bipolar PRF group (n =…33 per group). Pain intensity was evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS) at pretreatment, and at 1 and 3 months after the treatment. Target stimulation site was the extraforaminal nerve root. RESULTS: Compared to the pretreatment NRS scores, patients in both groups showed a significant decrease in NRS scores at 1 and 3 months after the treatment. Reductions in the NRS scores over time were significantly larger in the bipolar PRF group. Three months after the treatment, 18 patients (54.5%) in the monopolar PRF group and 27 (81.8%) in the bipolar PRF group reported successful pain relief (pain relief of ⩾ 50%). CONCLUSIONS: US-guided PRF can be an effective interventional technique for the management of chronic refractory cervical radiculopathy. Moreover, bipolar PRF has better treatment outcome than monopolar PRF.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Facet joint syndrome (FJS) pain is a significant contributor to back pain and has a high rate of opioid prescription. Unfortunately, there are a limited number of therapeutic options for these patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of amniotic membrane/umbilical cord particulate (AM/UC) in managing FJS pain. METHODS: A single-center, investigator-initiated, retrospective study was performed on consecutive patients with FJS pain who received intra- or peri-articular injection of AM/UC between July 1, 2018 and July 26, 2019. Primary outcome was change in Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) at 6…weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months to assess the self-reported percent improvement relative to baseline. Safety was assessed by AM/UC- and procedure-related complications. Paired t -tests were used to determine whether there is a statistically significant improvement of pain post-injection compared to baseline. RESULTS: There were a total of 54 patients (69.7 ± 13.4 years; 31 female) presenting baseline pain score of 9.2 ± 1.0 despite prior treatments of activity modification (66.7%), NSAIDs (61.1%), opioids (37.0%), and physical therapy (35.2%). Mean GPIC improvement was 65.3%, 67.5%, 56.9%, and 56.7% among responders 30 , respectively. There were no complications. CONCLUSION: This study supports the safety and effectiveness of AM/UC particulate injection in managing FJS pain.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common reasons for visiting the doctor. The Mézières method (MM) emphasises body awareness and uses a global postural rehabilitation approach. It is used in the management of LBP, but its effectiveness has received limited formal evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of MM on quality of life, pain and functional disability in people with LBP and understand the patient’s bodily experience during the MM intervention. METHODS: This single-blind randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods design will include 54 people with LBP aged…18 to 65 years. Participants will be randomised into two groups, one will receive MM and the other will receive a control intervention, administered through 10 treatment sessions. Participants will also construct a narrative to provide an understanding of their bodily experience. RESULTS: The assessed outcomes will include pain, back pain-related disability assessed using the Roland Morris Questionnaire, and quality of life related to health assessed using the SF12. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, after the intervention and at a 6 weeks follow-up.
Keywords: Low back pain, Mézières method, exercise, physical therapy
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Calcaneal spur and hallux valgus are common foot deformities and both conditions have been shown to disrupt foot biomechanics. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between calcaneal spur and hallux valgus using radiographic and demographic data. METHODS: A total of 1375 patients (1083 women; mean age: 45.5 years) with standard ankle lateral and foot conventional anteroposterior radiographs were evaluated. The following data were obtained: age, gender, laterality, hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), and calcaneal spur. Patients with a HVA of 15 ∘ and above were…considered to have hallux valgus. Patients with hallux valgus were classified into three different groups according to the HVA. RESULTS: The prevalence of calcaneal spur was higher in older age and women (45.8%, 30.2%; p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). Subjects with and without calcaneal spurs had similarities in terms of their laterality, having a HVA of ⩾ 15 ∘ and an IMA of ⩾ 11 ∘ (p > 0.05). Hallux valgus severity was not associated with calcaneal spur (p > 0.05). In addition, the hallux valgus prevalence was higher in patients who were over 50 years old (58.2%, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of calcaneal spurs does not affect the prevalence of hallux valgus. The severity of hallux valgus determined according to the HVA was similar in patients with and without calcaneal spurs. In addition, female gender and older age were identified as risk factors for calcaneal spurs, while only older age was a risk factor for hallux valgus.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Shortening of tensor fasciae latae is one factor that causes a functional leg length discrepancy. A shoe lift has been used to correct the compensatory posture resulting from the discrepancy. Despite the potential therapeutic benefit of a shoe lift, the mechanism by which it exerts its effect is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a shoe lift on tensor fasciae latae length during standing with an artificial functional leg length discrepancy using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy individuals performed static standing under three conditions: drop of the pelvis and…flexion of the leg resulting from fixing in the hip abduction position using a hip orthosis (functional leg length discrepancy condition); drop of the pelvis by the orthosis, but no flexion of the leg due to a shoe lift (shoe lift condition); and normal bilateral standing condition. The shear elastic modulus of tensor fasciae latae was calculated using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. RESULTS: The shear elastic modulus was significantly lower in the functional leg length discrepancy condition than in the shoe lift and normal conditions (p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Using a shoe lift for the functional leg length discrepancy can result in a functional hip position that elongates tensor fasciae latae.