Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic mechanical cervical pain (CMCP) is a common disabling problem worldwide, interfering with upper extremities function. However studying the impact of CMCP on shoulder proprioception is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of CMCP on shoulder proprioception in young adults compared with normal control (NC) individuals. METHODS: A comparative study was conducted between two groups; 40 patients with CMCP (mean age 32.28 ± 6.586) and 40 age and sex matched NC (mean age 33.43 ± 9.021). The Biodex isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess shoulder…active sense of position at 30 ∘ external and internal rotations. The absolute angular error was calculated for the dominant and non-dominant shoulders. RESULTS: The absolute angular error was significantly increased only in the CMCP at both rotation angles for both shoulders, showing a remarkable increase on the dominant shoulder and in the external rotation range compared with NC. CONCLUSIONS: CMCP can significantly impair shoulder proprioception, particularly on the dominant side and in external rotation range. This could emphasize the careful examination of shoulder proprioception for the early detection of shoulders at risk, to eliminate the possibility of shoulder instability and/or injury in young adults with CMCP.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sedentary work may lead to low back pain. In particular, a slumped sitting position may exacerbate low back pain because of tissue damage caused by excessive lumbar flexion and posterior pelvic tilting. Subjects with low back pain may have excessive changes in the lumbopelvic posture and back muscle activity in the sitting position. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of vibration-based biofeedback using a motion sensor belt and no biofeedback on multifidus (MF) muscle activity and pelvic tilt angle during typing. METHODS: Thirty subjects with low back…pain accompanied by hip flexion limitation (15 each in the biofeedback and non-biofeedback groups) were enrolled. Electromyography was used to investigate MF muscle activity before and after typing for 30 min. Pelvic tilt was measured after typing in a sitting position for 30 min. Independent t-tests were used to compare MF muscle activity, and pelvic and second sacrum tilt angles, between the biofeedback and non-biofeedback groups. RESULTS: After typing for 30 min, changes in MF muscle activity (11.45% and - 7.19% for the biofeedback and nonbiofeedback groups, respectively) and pelvic and second sacrum tilt angles (3.15 ∘ and 4.12 ∘ for the biofeedback group and - 11.05 ∘ and - 18.16 ∘ for the non-biofeedback group, respectively) were significantly smaller in the biofeedback than non-biofeedback group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Vibration-based biofeedback minimizes the reduction in MF muscle activity and changes in pelvic and second sacrum tilt angles during typing in individuals with low back pain accompanied by hip flexion limitation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite being used as a program of postoperative rehabilitation, few randomized controlled trials have compared the effectiveness of postoperative exercise based on gait analysis in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of postoperative exercise based on gait analysis in patients with LSS and to compare it with the effectiveness of conventional exercise. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty-eight participants with LSS were randomly assigned to one of two groups. After receiving a standardized surgical procedure, the observation group received exercises based on 3-D gait…analysis, and the control group received empirical physiotherapy containing 4 basic interventions. Both groups took a one-hour session twice daily for 2 weeks. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scale and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were measured before and 2 weeks and 6 months after intervention. The gait indicators were measured before and 6 months after intervention. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant differences in the ODI, VAS or absolute symmetry index (ASI) of the gait variables between the observation group and the control group. However, at 6 months, pain intensity, walking, standing, social life and summary scores of ODI and VAS of the leg demonstrated significant differences (p < 0.05, respectively) between groups, and the observation group had greater reductions in ASI of stride length, hip flexion, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion compared with the control group (p < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The postoperative rehabilitation scheme based on gait analysis resulted in significant short- to medium-term improvements in pain intensity, walking, standing, social life and the summary score of ODI, VAS of leg and symmetry of stride length, hip flexion, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion compared with empirical exercise in patients with LSS.
Keywords: Spinal osteoarthritis, physical therapy modalities, low back pain, kinematics, perioperative period
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Some interrelationships among fibromyalgia (FM), loss of cervical lordosis (LCL), and headache have been reported. Thus, it is sensible to examine LCL as a factor underlying FM and headache. OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to assess LCL in chronic neck pain patients (CNPP) with FM and its association with headache features and FM severity. METHODS: CNPP with (n = 55; mean age 40.0 ± 8.5; range 20 to 55 years) and without FM (n = 55; mean age…38.5 ± 8.9; range 20 to 55 years) were included in the study. Cervical lordosis was assessed by measuring the Cobb angle on the lateral cervical radiographs. The patients were asked about headache features within the last month. In addition, the CNPP with FM were evaluated by the Turkish version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of age, weight, height, body mass index, working status, and neck pain duration (p > 0.05 for each). The CNPP with FM had significantly reduced cervical lordosis angle compared with those without. The CNPP with FM had significantly higher headache frequency than those without (p = 0.008). There was statistically significant negative correlation between cervical lordosis angle and headache frequency in the CNPP with FM (r: - 0.336; p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, LCL may be associated with FM and headache frequency in the CNPP with FM.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although measures of exercise performance and physical activity are known to be related to 6-minute walk test (6mWT), the role of the strength of each muscle group of the lower limb in the locomotor capacity during the development period is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the role of the isometric strength of lower limb muscles and cardiovascular parameters on the locomotor capacity in children and adolescents, controlling for participants sex, age, and height. METHODS: Participants (7 to 15 years old; female, n = 113; male, n =…128) were assessed for isometric strength (seven lower limb muscles), cardiovascular parameters (diastolic pressure, oxygen saturation, resting heart rate, respiratory rate), and 6mWT. Participants were split into nine age groups and separated by 1-year intervals. RESULTS: Hip flexors-controlled for sex, age, and height-explained a meaningful percentage of the variance (R= 2 0.45; p < 0.001) for 6mWT distance, and the resting heart rate explained a change in R 2 of only 2% (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Isometric strength of hip flexors explained ∼ 50% of the 6mWT distance, suggesting the importance of strength from an early age. Other factors, such as cardiovascular parameters, while relevant, may exert a secondary role on youth’s capacity.
Keywords: Gait, lower extremity, walk test, muscle strength, musculoskeletal and neural physiological phenomena
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) is mainly evaluated through pain, disability, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, recent studies have recommended the consideration of improvement from patients’ perspectives. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the global perception of improvement in Lebanese patients with CNSLBP who have undergone PT, the HRQOL levels, as well as pain intensity. METHODS: 132 patients with CNSLBP who have undergone PT completed a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic and CNSLBP characteristics questions, pain intensity numeric…scale (NRS), 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), and the Global Perceived Effect scale (GPE). Binary logistic regressions and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for analyses. RESULTS: Global perceived improvement of PT varies according to HRQOL levels. A significant correlation was found between pain intensity after PT, perceived improvement from PT, and HRQOL. Educational level and pain irradiation have been shown to be predictive factors of perceived improvement after PT. CONCLUSION: Pain and HRQOL are interrelated and contributed to elucidating the global perception of improvement after PT in patients with CNSLBP. The findings suggest that patients’ global perception of improvement should be considered in evaluating the benefits of physical therapy in addition to pain and HRQOL.
Keywords: Low back pain, physical therapy specialty, quality of Life
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury may result in rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome when blood supply returns after thrombectomy for patients with acute limb ischemia. OBJECTIVE: We highlight the value of early diagnosis and treatment in post-thrombectomy patients with IR injuries in their lower legs. CASE DESCRIPTION: Two patients received thrombectomy due to left superficial femoral artery occlusion. Both patients complained of left calf pain during ambulation at the 1- and 3-day follow up post-thrombectomy, as well as a heating sensation, swelling, weakness, and sensory changes in the affected leg. For early diagnosis musculoskeletal…ultrasounds were performed and in both cases revealed swelling and change of echogenicity in the left calf. To further diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the left leg revealed limb IR-induced muscular injury and rhabdomyolysis, respectively. In both cases, an electrodiagnostic study revealed peripheral nerve injury in the left leg. Medications were provided for neuropathic pain control and early rehabilitation was performed to improve function. In both cases, patients reported during their follow-up that their pain and muscle weakness had improved. CONCLUSION: When post-thrombectomy calf pain occurs early evaluation and treatment should be performed to identify any potential IR injury.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), which is the most common type of scoliosis, is a progressive disease that occurs in children aged 10–16 years. Abnormal curvature in AIS provokes spinal asymmetry of the upper body alignment and might deteriorate postural balancing and control ability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of exercise interventions on balance and postural stability in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: Embase, Scopus, Pubmed (Medline) and Web of Science databases were searched using the terms idiopathic scoliosis, physiotherapy, and balance. The articles selected were published in English in peer-reviewed journals…from 2012 to July 2022. RESULTS: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The PEDro scale values ranged from 2 to 6 (mean, 3.6), indicating a low level of scientific rigor. In the sample studies, spinal stabilization exercises were most often trialed (n = 3), followed by Schroth’s exercise (n = 2), stretching and self-elongation exercise (n = 2), the exercise protocol of Blount and Moe, physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercise, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise (all n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: Physical therapists will be able to apply hippotherapy, Schroth exercise, physiotherapy scoliosis-specific exercise, trunk stabilization, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise, spinal stabilization exercise, core stabilization exercise, and body awareness therapy to manage balance impairments in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and further studies are needed to provide stronger evidence.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The activity of deep trunk muscles (psoas major; PM, quadratus lumborum; QL, transverse abdominis; TrA, and lumbar multifidus; MF) in response to external perturbation is not clearly known. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to record the onset and amount of activity of the deep trunk muscles during sagittal plane perturbations. METHODS: Fourteen healthy males participated in this study. The activity of the right deep trunk muscles was recorded using wire electrodes. In standing, the participants performed three tasks: a pendulum impacted from anterior with predictable and unpredictable and posterior with unpredictable.…RESULTS: In predictable anterior perturbation, the TrA and PM demonstrated feedforward activation, while all deep trunk muscles demonstrated feedback activation in unpredictable anterior and posterior perturbations. In the anticipatory postural adjustment phase, the activity of the TrA was large in predictable anterior perturbation, while that of all deep trunk muscles was slight in other perturbations. In the compensatory postural adjustment phase, the activity of the PM, QL, and TrA in unpredictable anterior perturbation and those of the PM, QL, and MF in unpredictable posterior perturbation were large. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that the onset and magnitude of deep trunk muscle activity changed depending on both predictable or unpredictable perturbation and the direction of perturbation.
Keywords: Electromyography, core stability, healthy participants, muscles, postural control
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of symptoms and ineffective treatment raise questions about the current diagnostic criteria of fibromyalgia (FM). Misdiagnosis of FM often leads to less than efficacious treatment and poor quality of life. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews relevant evidence-based literature on personality traits in FM patients with an autonomic dysfunction perspective based on a hierarchical model to explain the utility of considering the personality trait in FM diagnosis. METHODS: A narrative review of articles concerning chronic pain, FM, and personality traits with respect to autonomic dysfunction in FM was conducted after extensive relevant…literature searches. RESULTS: Reports discussing the predisposing factors, including coping styles, anger, suicide risk, a lack of physical activity and social support, in maintaining persistent pain in FM exist. Relationships between pain duration and severity and personality traits like neuroticism and extraversion have been reported. Coexisting clinical manifestations of FM like sleep disorders, anxiety, and intestinal irritability indicate autonomic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: This article lays out a constructive framework for individualized and personalized medicine for the effective rehabilitation of FM patients. The quest to find a definitive diagnosis of FM should include personality biomarkers that might translate into personalized medicine. An individualistic approach may bank upon artificial intelligence algorithms for both diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes in FM.