Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 35, issue 2
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A validated method to assess sitting and standing posture in a clinical setting is needed to guide diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of these postures. At present, no systematic overview of assessment methods, their clinimetric properties, and usability is available. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide such an overview and to interpret the results for clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed according to international guidelines. Two independent reviewers assessed risk of bias, clinimetric values of the assessment methods, and their usability. Quality of evidence and strength of…recommendations were determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group (GRADE). RESULTS: Out of 27,680 records, 41 eligible studies were included. Thirty-two assessment instruments were identified, clustered into five categories. The methodological quality of 27 (66%) of the articles was moderate to good. Reliability was most frequently studied. Little information was found about validity and none about responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a moderate level of evidence, a tentative recommendation can be made to use a direct visual observation method with global posture recorded by a trained observer applying a rating scale.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is little evidence on the reliability of the web application-based rehabilitation systems to treat chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: This protocol describes a double-blind, randomized controlled feasibility trial of an e-Health intervention developed to support the self-management of people with CLBP in primary care physiotherapy. Three Hospitals with primary care for outpatients will be the units of randomisation, in each Hospital the participants will be randomized to one of two groups, a pragmatic control group receiving either the usual home program based on electrostimulation and McKenzie Therapy and e-Health intervention. Patients are followed up…at 2 and 6 months. The primary outcomes are (1) acceptability and demand of the intervention by GPs, physiotherapists and patients and (2) feasibility and optimal study design/methods for a definitive trial. Secondary outcomes will include analysis in the clinical outcomes of pain, disability, fear of movement, quality of life, isometric resistance of the trunk flexors, lumbar anteflexion and lumbar segmental range of motion. DISCUSSION: The specific e-Health programs to home could increase adherence to treatment, prevent stages of greater pain and disability, and improve the painful symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: The e-Health programs could be an effective healthcare tool that can reach a large number of people living in rural or remote areas.
Keywords: Low back pain, chronic disease, e-Health, home exercise, randomised controlled trial
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Slipping rib syndrome (SRS) consists of false or floating rib hypermobility, which can force the ribs to come into contact with each other. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine each case by dynamic ultrasound to determine their ultrasound characteristics and analyze the clinical features of patients with SRS in order to better manage and follow them up. METHODS: Retrospectively, we collected 14 case series presenting to SRS between June 2016 and September 2018. The diagnosis was clinical and confirmed by dynamic ultrasound maneuvers. RESULTS: The mean age was 35.00 ±…10.66 years and 64.29% was male. The pain mechanism was caused by repetitive movements or a traumatic event. Dynamic ultrasound was considered a very useful tool for the diagnosis. Different conservative treatments were applied in most cases. Eco-guided infiltration was also an option. CONCLUSIONS: SRS should initially be based on a clinic suspicion in order to achieve a correct diagnosis and management. It is an underdiagnosed syndrome, so these case series contribute to our knowledge regarding this syndrome.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has become a significant healthcare issue, particularly challenging for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), because immune-related diseases and their treatments could adversely affect the susceptibility to or severity of a viral infection. OBJECTIVE: This study is conducted to present an exercise rehabilitation program that patients older than 60 years with AS can do at home during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Three Delphi surveys were conducted to reach a consensus on home-based rehabilitation programs. This study recruited ten experts and performed three Delphi rounds for a month. RESULTS: The…expert panel suggested that home-based rehabilitation for the patients should be carried out with a clear rehabilitation goal. Their final recommendations are to institute a program aimed to ease symptoms, such as pain and stiffness; encourage patients to consult with experts regularly to ensure that they perform exercise rehabilitation properly at home; add fast walking and stretching to the rehabilitation program; and see if indoor cycling, Pilates, or yoga could be appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that patients with AS over 60 should repeat low-intensity exercises, such as stretching, for an hour a day, four to six times a week during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease primarily affecting the axial skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term effects of locoregional water-filtered infrared A radiation (sl-wIRAR) in the treatment of lower back pain in patients with axSpA. METHODS: Patients with active axSpA with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy undergoing a 7-day multimodal rheumatologic complex treatment in an in-patient setting were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG) receiving sl-wIRAR treatment of the back (2 treatments/day for 30 min each for 6 days) or to the control group (CG) receiving…no treatment. Primary outcome was a between-group difference in pain after sl-wIRAR therapy measured on a numeric rating scale (NRS) (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain). Secondary outcomes included an assessment of i) the onset and development of analgesic effects and an evaluation of whether sl-wIRAR ii) improved axSpA-specific well-being and iii) influenced serum cytokine levels. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were enrolled, completed the trial and were analyzed (IG: 36 patients, CG: 35 patients). In the IG, there was a statistically significant change (p < 0.0005) in pain level [NRS] (1.6 ± 1.9 [5; 2]) from baseline (4.1 ± 2.4 [0; 8]) to trial completion (2.6 ± 2.0 [0; 7]) and a significant difference to the CG (p = 0.006). In the IG there was a significant improvement in axSpA-specific well-being (BAS-G) (p = 0.006). A physiologically relevant change in serum cytokine levels could not be observed. CONCLUSION: sl-wIRAR treatment can be useful in the treatment of patients with active axSpA as it leads to a rapid reduction of pain.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Subacromial pain (SAP) is a common complaint of young athletes, independently of the sport engaged. The prevalence of SAP in some sports is up to 50%. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to investigate some new factors possibly associated to subacromial pain in young athletes. The factors considered were the grade of tightness of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major, dysfunction of the sternoclavicular joint, and serratus anterior and lower trapezius strength. METHODS: This case-control study included 82 young athletes 9–15 years, 41 with the symptoms of SAP and 41 controls. All…participants self-reported whether they had subacromial pain. In addition, Hawkins–Kennedy Test was performed to all the participants to evaluate the subacromial pressure. Main outcome measures were the grade of tightness of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major, dysfunction of the sternoclavicular joint, and serratus anterior and lower trapezius strength. The grade of tightness of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major and the dysfunction of the sternoclavicular joint were measured with an inclinometer. Serratus anterior and lower trapezius strength were measured by a handheld dynamometer with external belt-fixation. The data were analyzed using t-test for independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test, contingency coefficients and a stepwise binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Significant statistical difference was observed in the grade of tightness of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major and in the variable representing the physiological functioning of the sternoclavicular joint, between the cases and the controls. There was no significant difference in serratus anterior and lower trapezius strength between the cases and the controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that the variable representing the physiological functioning of the sternoclavicular joint and the grade of shortening of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major were good predictors for presence of SAP. CONCLUSIONS: A strong association was determined between subacromial pain in young athletes, clavicular portion of pectoralis major tightness and the dysfunction of the sternoclavicular joint.
Keywords: Subacromial pain, dysfunction of sternoclavicular joint, clavicular portion of pectoralis major, acromoclavicular joint
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is accompanied by symptoms of fatigue, depression, sleep disorders, and physical and mental stress [1 ]. It is a difficult-to-treat disorder because its exact causes are unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation therapy (PMRT) on pain, fatigue, and stress in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (age: 20–65 years) were randomly allocated to the PMRT group (n 1 = 18, 2 men and 16 women) or non-PMRT group (n 2 =…19, 2 men and 17 women). The PMRT group received PMRT twice a week for 8 weeks and the non-PMRT group received conventional physical therapies such as electro-stimulation and heat therapies during this period. The outcome was evaluated before and after 8 week sofintervention using the Visual Analogue Scale, Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, Perceived Stress Scale, and measurement of the blood pressure and pulse rate. RESULTS: Pain and fatigue significantly decreased in the PMRT group compared with the non-PMRT group (both P < 0.001). In addition, perceived stress (P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05), and pulse rate (P < 0.001) significantly decreased in the PMRT group compared with the non-PMRT group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that progressive muscle relaxation therapy is a viable rehabilitative therapy for pain, fatigue, and stress symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes and cement leakage rate between high-viscosity and low-viscosity cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) with manipulative reduction in the treatment of Kümmell’s disease (KD). METHOD: PVP using high-viscosity cement (Group H) or low-viscosity cement (Group L) with manipulative reduction was compared in 86 KD patients. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), vertebral height, kyphosis angle and complications were evaluated and compared preoperative, one day postoperative, and at final follow-up. RESULTS: The VAS score, ODI score, mean anterior and middle vertebral height variation significantly improved in both groups…postoperatively. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups considering the above results preoperative and postoperative. Significantly less cement leakage (13.6%) and shorter operative time (35.6 ± 5.1 min) were observed in Group H when compared with Group L (45.2% and 41.1 ± 5.3 min) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes and radiologic findings of PVP with manipulative reduction was not influenced by cement viscosity. However, high cement viscosity PVP was found to be significant less cement leakage and shorter operative time.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is important for clinicians and researchers to perform dynamic postural control evaluation for predicting musculoskeletal conditions, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship (1) between the eccentric strength of the knee extensors and star excursion balance test (SEBT), and (2) between the knee proprioception and SEBT. METHODS: Forty healthy young adults participated in this study. The eccentric peak torque (EPT) of the knee extensors, joint position sense, and force sense were measured. The participants also performed SEBT. Pearson’s product-moment correlation and multiple linear…regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between the variables and SEBT. RESULTS: The posteromedial direction of the SEBT was positively and strongly correlated with EPT (r = 0.74, P < 0.01). The anterior and posterolateral directions were positively and moderately correlated with EPT (r = 0.46, P < 0.01, and r = 0.69, P < 0.01, respectively.). However, knee proprioception was not correlated with all the directions of SEBT (P > 0.05). According to the results of multiple linear regression analysis, EPT of the knee extensors significantly predicted SEBT reach distances. CONCLUSION: The eccentric strength of the knee extensors seems to be an essential factor in dynamic postural control. However, the knee proprioception did not show a significant correlation with SEBT.