Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 34, issue 4
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The screw-home mechanism (SHM) plays an important role in the stability of the knee. Accordingly, the analysis of tibial rotation patterns can be used to elucidate the effect of SHM-related factors. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of the angle and the pattern of SHM between passive and active movements. METHODS: We studied twenty healthy males, of which the angle of knee flexion-extension and tibial longitudinal rotation (TLR) during active and passive movements were measured using the inertial measurement unit. Student’s t -tests were used…to compare the magnitude of TLR. The waveform similarity was quantified using a coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC). RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the TLR between the active and passive movements (p < 0.05). The knee flexion-extension waveform similarity was excellent (CMC = 0.956). However, the waveform similarity of TLR was weak (CMC = 0.629). CONCLUSION: The SHM increased abruptly during the last 20 ∘ of the active (extension) movement compared with passive extension. The SHM occurred mainly owing to the geometry and shape of the articular surfaces of the knee joint. In addition, muscle contraction was considered to be an important factor in the articulation movement.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Clinical studies assessing the impacts of ozone on the musculoskeletal framework are slowly expanding. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we analyzed the impact of paravertebral ozone treatment (OT) injection treatment on distress and disability in patients with lumbar disc hernia (LDH). METHODS: The records of 432 patients with L4-5 and L5-S1 LDH were examined retrospectively. 298 patients who met the inclusion criteria and who provided written informed consent were divided into two groups. Each group received 15 sets of physiotherapy at a rate of five sets every week (study group (n…= 139), control group (n = 159)). Six OT injections were applied solely to the study group, two days per week. A visual pain score (VAS) was set up for distress and the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODI) for disablement was administered when the groups were called to control before treatment, towards the end of the treatment, and three months after the treatment ended. RESULTS: The groups had significantly reduced (p < 0.05) VAS and ODI scores following and three months after the treatment contrasted with their scores before the treatment. The Physiotherapy + OT group had significantly lower (p < 0.05) VAS and ODI scores than the physiotherapy group following and three months after the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Paravertebral OT injection is quite a safe and helpful treatment technique in LDH patients. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the long-term outcomes of the paravertebral OT application.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common health problem for which there are several treatment options. For optimizing clinical decision making, evaluation of treatments and research purposes it is important that health care professionals are able to evaluate the functional status of patients. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are widely accepted and recommended. The Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) are the two mainly used condition-specific patient reported outcomes. Concerns regarding the content and structural validity and also the different scoring systems of these outcome measures makes comparison of treatment results difficult.…OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to determine if the RMDQ and ODI could be used exchangeable by assessing the correlation and comparing different measurement properties between the questionnaires. METHODS: Clinical data from patients who participated in a multicenter RCT with 2 year follow-up after lumbar spinal fusion were used. Outcome measures were the RMDQ, ODI, Short Form 36 – Health Survey (SF-36), leg pain and back pain measured on a 0–100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, Spearman correlation coefficients, multiple regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots were calculated. RESULTS: three hundred and seventy-six completed questionnaires filled out by 87 patients were used. The ODI and RMDQ had both a good level of internal consistency. There was a very strong correlation between the RMDQ and the ODI (r = 0.87; p < 0.001), and between the VAS and both the ODI and RMDQ. However, the Bland-Altman plot indicated bad agreement between the ODI and RMDQ. CONCLUSIONS: The RMDQ and ODI cannot be used interchangeably, nor is there a possibility of converting the score from one questionnaire to the other. However, leg pain and back pain seemed to be predictors for both the ODI and the RMDQ.
Keywords: Oswestry Disability Index, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, clinical outcome, patient reported outcome measures, correlations, low back pain
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different taping techniques on back muscle fatigue in people with low back pain. METHODS: Sixty women with chronic non-specific low back pain were randomly assigned to four groups of 15 participants each: control (CG), Kinesio Taping (KT) with tension (KTT), KT no tension (KTNT) and Micropore ® (MP), which were applied over the erector spinae muscles. The median frequency (MF) fatigue slopes of the longissimus muscle and sustained contraction time during a trunk fatigue test (Ito test), and pain using the numerical pain rating scale (NPRS)…were collected at three time points: pre-treatment, three and ten days after intervention at a university laboratory. RESULTS: Significant differences were seen in the MF slopes between groups (p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.20), with the KTT showing a mean difference (MD = 0.31, p = 0.04) and KTNT (MD = 0.28, p = 0.04) compared with CG. Significant reductions in NPRS were seen between time points (p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.28), with a reduction between pre and 3 days (MD = 1.87, p < 0.001), and pre and 10 days (MD = 1.38, p < 0.001), with KTT and KTNT both showing clinically important changes. CONCLUSION: KT, with or without tension, has a tendency to reduce back muscle fatigue and reduce pain in individuals with chronic non-specific low back pain.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although studies examined kinesiological taping (KT) and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), no study has yet compared these two treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of KT and ESWT on pain, pain threshold, functional level and neck movements in the treatment of MPS, which is an important cause of disability and constitutes 50–80% of chronic painful diseases. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-two patients diagnosed with MPS in the upper part of the unilateral trapeze muscle were included in the study. The patients were divided…into three groups according to the treatment they received: Group 1 (n = 75): ESWT + exercise, Group 2 (n = 82): KT + exercise, Group 3 (n = 105) and the latter receiving only exercise therapy (control group). Visual analog scale (VAS), pain threshold with algometer, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck contralateral lateral flexion angle were assessed before and three months after treatment. RESULTS: VAS, pain threshold, NDI and contralateral flexion angle values after treatment improved significantly in the ESWT and KT groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. The level of improvement in the ESWT group was higher (p < 0.05) than in the KT group in terms of VAS, pain threshold and NDI scores. CONCLUSION: Exercise, KT and ESWT applications in MPS were effective in all of the parameters examined. However, the ESWT + exercise therapy was more effective in terms of pain, pain threshold and disability.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff muscles are structurally and functionally different from other upper-limb muscles because they are responsible for glenohumeral joint stability. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) induces excitability changes (increase or decrease) of the corticospinal tract (CST) in the peripheral muscles, such as those of the finger. However, it remains unclear whether similar results are obtained when targeting the infraspinatus muscle, which has properties that differ from other muscles, in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the immediate effects of NMES on the corticospinal excitability of the infraspinatus muscle, a rotator cuff muscle, in healthy subjects.…METHODS: Thirteen healthy right-handed men (mean age: 26.77 ± 2.08 years) participated in this study. The motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the maximum compound muscle action potential (Mmax) were recorded before NMES to the right infraspinatus and within 15 minutes after the end of the NMES. RESULTS: NMES on the infraspinatus muscle significantly increased its MEP amplitude (Pre: 0.45 mV [0.33–0.48]; Post: 0.54 mV [0.46–0.60] (median [lower quartile to higher quartile]); p = 0.005) but had no effect on Mmax (Pre: 2.95 mV [2.59–4.71]; Post: 3.35 mV [2.76–4.72]; p = 0.753). CONCLUSIONS: NMES application to the infraspinatus muscle increases CST excitability without producing immediate changes in the neuromuscular junction or muscle hypertrophy.
Keywords: Infraspinatus muscle, rotator cuff muscles, electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, motor evoked potential
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the literature, novel physiotherapy and rehabilitation approaches are getting significant attention as a way to cope with secondary complications in the management of asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of core stabilization exercises combined with the Asthma Education Program (AEP) and breathing exercises in patients with asthma. METHODS: The study sample consists of 40 asthmatic patients (age 52.25 ± 11.51 years) who were randomly divided into a Training Group (TG) (n = 20) and a Control Group (CG) (n =…20). All subjects were included in the AEP, and both groups were trained in breathing retraining exercises (2 times/wk, 6-week duration in the clinic). The core stabilization exercise program was also applied in the TG. Respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ)), health-related quality of life (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQOL)), functional exercise capacity (six-minute walking test (6MWT)), and dynamic balance (Prokin PK200) were assessed before and after the interventions. RESULTS: The TG showed more significant improvements in MIP (Δ TG:4.55 cmH 2 O, Δ CG:0.95 cmH 2 O), IPAQ (Δ TG:334.15 MET-min/wk., Δ CG:99 MET-min/wk.), 6MWT (Δ TG:24.50 m, Δ CG:11.50 m), and dynamic balance sub-parameters compared to the mean difference between the initial assessment and after a 6-week intervention program, which included twelve exercise sessions (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The findings present greater improvements in inspiratory muscle strength, physical activity level, functional exercise capacity, and dynamic balance when core stabilization exercises are included in the pulmonary rehabilitation program for the management of asthma.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The number of patients with an osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, which is often accompanied by lower back pain and restrained activities, is growing. Balloon kyphoplasty involves the inflation of a balloon to restore height and reduce kyphotic deformity before stabilization with polymethylmethacrylate. However, there is a great deal of debate about whether balloon kyphoplasty also increases fracture morbidity by either inducing or facilitating subsequent adjacent vertebral fractures. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the rate of vertebral body height loss before balloon kyphoplasty and the etiology of early adjacent vertebral fracture after augmentation.…METHODS: A total of 59 patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures who underwent kyphoplasty were enrolled. This study defined early adjacent segmental fractures as new fractures occurring within three months after surgery. This study included the rate of vertebral body height loss. RESULTS: Early adjacent vertebral fractures were diagnosed in nine (15%) of the 59 patients. The patients were divided into two groups, with and without adjacent vertebral fractures. There was no significant difference in terms of age, body mass index, bone mineral density, local kyphotic angle, Cobb’s angle, cement volume, cement leakage, and percent height restored between the groups with fractures and without fractures. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the rate of vertebral body height loss. The rate of vertebral body height loss was significantly higher in the fracture group than in the without fracture group. CONCLUSIONS: A high rate of vertebral body height loss increased the risk of early adjacent vertebral fractures after balloon kyphoplasty.
Keywords: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, adjacent vertebral fracture, balloon kyphoplasty, vertebral body height loss
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Back pain is a leading reason for seeking care in the United States (US), and is a major cause of morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To analyze demographic, patient, and visit characteristics of adult ambulatory spine clinic visits in the United States from 2009–2016. METHODS: Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2009–2016 were used and were sample weighted. RESULTS: Most patients presenting for ambulatory spine care were 45–64 years (45%), were most commonly female (56.8%), and private insurance (45%) and Medicare (26%) were most common payors. The percentage of…visits for spine care done at a primary care setting was 50.1% in 2009–2010 and 48.3% in 2014–2015. Approximately 15.5% were seen in orthopedic surgery clinics in 2009–2010 and 7.3% in 2015–2016. MRI was utilized in 11.7% in 2009–2010 and 11.0% in 2015–2016. Physical therapy was prescribed in 13.2% and narcotic analgesic medications were prescribed in 36.2% of patients in 2015–2016. CONCLUSIONS: MRI was used more frequently than guidelines recommended, and physical therapy was less frequently utilized despite evidence. A relatively high use of opiates in treatment of back pain was reported and is concerning. Although back pain represents a substantial public health burden in the United States, the delivery of care is not evidence-based.
Keywords: Low back pain, epidemiology, primary care
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A considerable part of patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP) suffer from a recurrence of symptoms after therapy cessation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the predictive value of active and passive treatments and treatment modalities on a recurrence of low back pain after cessation of medically prescribed therapy. METHODS: Patients with non-specific LBP from a health- and therapy-center were included. Treatments were monitored and categorized as active or passive. During one year after therapy cessation, patients were monitored to retrieve information about recurrence of symptoms. Patients…were dichotomized (recurrence versus no recurrence). An ROC-Analysis was used to determine optimal cut-offs for relevant treatment characteristics’ (passive versus active; frequency) impact on recurrence risk. The relative risk for a recurrence was calculated based on Chi 2 -test. RESULTS: Data from 96 participants (56 females, 40 males, mean age 49 years, standard deviation 11 years) were analysed. A total of 34 participants had recurring LBP. The frequency of active treatment differed significantly between groups with or without recurrence (p < 0.05). A therapy frequency of 1.45 active treatments/week was a sensitive cut-off (sensitivity: 0.73) to discriminate the recurrence groups. Participants with an active therapy frequency of less than 1.45 treatments per week showed an 82% increased relative recurrence risk (RR: 1.824 (95%-CI: 1.077–3.087)). CONCLUSIONS: The results empathize the importance of active treatments (i.e. exercise) in the therapy and (secondary) prevention of non-specific LBP. Less than 1.45 active treatment sessions/week increases the 1-year-risk of a recurrence by 82%. Performing at least two treatments sessions per week is therefore recommended.