Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 30, issue 3
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Four to fifty percent of patients will develop Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) following lumbar spine surgery. Repeated surgeries lead to escalating costs and subsequent decreases in success rate. Much of the research to date has focused on the psychosocial factors associated with FBSS. All factors including physical and pathological aetiologies should be examined. These factors may be independent, co-exist with or predispose patients to the psychological factors associated with FBSS. Previous reviews on the topic have been limited by a lack of systematic overview. The aim of this review is to identify the physical, physiological and pathological…aetiologies of FBSS. METHODS: This review was done in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A computer-aided search of the electronic databases from inception to December 2014 was performed. Outcome measures of interest included pain, functional and radiological assessments. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Six studies met the inclusion criteria and included a total of 663 patients. A total of twenty two aetiologies were identified. Only three studies reviewed non-surgical aetiologies. Many of the studies relied on medical imaging to identify the aetiologies. A meta-analysis was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of studies. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of FBSS can be attributed to patho-anatomical, peripheral pain generators, physical/ mechanical, neurophysiological, surgical and `other' aetiologies. Three of the studies only examined surgical causes of FBSS. Further research, that examines surgical and non-surgical aetiologies, is required to draw firm conclusions. With nineteen aetiologies identified, FBSS remains an unclear diagnosis for a complex heterogeneous group of patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mixed use of T1- or T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in histographic analysis has impeded cross-reference of studies on fatty degeneration of muscles in patients with back pain. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to establish the measurement reliability of histographic analysis for normal and painful paraspinal muscles between T1- and T2-weighted MRI. METHODS: T1- and T2-weighted MRI at the L4-5 level were performed in 31 patients with unilateral back pain. Two raters conducted the histographic analysis on 2 separate occasions. Multifidus, erector spinae, and psoas major muscles were assessed on both normal…and painful sides. RESULTS: Intra- and interrater reliability of the parameters were generally excellent for both T1- (intrarater: 0.83 ± 0.13 and interrater: 0.93 ± 0.08) and T2-weighted images (intrarater: 0.93 ± 0.12 and interrater: 0.92 ± 0.12). Histogram width was fair to good for both kinds of image. Intraclass correlation coefficients were similar between painful and normal sides. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that most histographic analysis parameters had excellent reliability for both T1- and T2-weighted images allows for cross-reference of the results between the two kinds of image. Moreover, the results of this study support the availability of histographic analysis for assessment of fatty degeneration in patients with back pain.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is one of the problematic complications following anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). The impact of additional surgery with instruments is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of additional ACDF with instruments for symptomatic ASD after an initial ACDF using autogenous iliac grafts without instruments. METHODS: A total of 56 patients who underwent an additional ACDF with instruments for symptomatic new radicular or myelopathic symptoms from ASD between 2006 and 2012. In this study, subjects were 30 men and 26…women with a mean age of 59.2 ± 9.7 years (range, 50-70 years) at revision surgery. Clinical evaluations were performed preoperatively and repeated at 3 years after operation. RESULTS: There were no cases of intraoperative complications, major neurological or vascular, pseudoarthrosis or wound complications. All of them reported significant improvements in JOA, NDI and VAS on arm pain and neck pain from the preoperative means (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our study, additional ACDF with instruments had achieved favorable clinical results on patients who underwent initial ACDF using autogenous iliac grafts without instruments for symptomatic new radiculopathy or myelopathy.
Keywords: Anterior cervical decompression and fusion, adjacent segment disease, revision surgery
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The efficacy of osteopathic manual therapy (OMT) applications on chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP) has been demonstrated. However, visceral applications, which are an important part of OMT techniques, have not been included in those studies. OBJECTIVE: The study's objective was to determine the effect of OMT including visceral applications on the function and quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. DESIGN: The study was designed with a simple method of block randomization. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with chronic nonspecific LBP were included in the study. OMT…group consisted of 19 patients to whom OMT and exercise methods were applied. The visceral osteopathic manual therapy (vOMT) group consisted of 20 patients to whom visceral applications were applied in addition to the applications carried out in the other group. Ten sessions were performed over a two-week period. Pain (VAS), function (Oswestry Index) and QoL (SF-36) assessments were carried out before the treatment and on the sixth week of treatment. RESULTS: Both of the treatments were found to be effective on pain and function, physical function, pain, general health, social function of the QoL sub-parameter. vOMT was effective on all sub-QoL parameters (p<0.05). Comparing the groups, it was determined that the energy and physical limitations of the QoL scores in vOMT were higher (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: Visceral applications on patients with non-specific LBP gave positive results together with OMT and exercise methods. We believe that visceral fascial limitations, which we think cause limitations and pain in the lumbar segment, should be taken into consideration.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate deep tissue injuries (DTIs) in elite female wheelchair basketball players and identify factors associated with their occurrence. METHODS: Study participants were 22 female wheelchair basketball players on the Japanese national team. The sacral and bilateral ischial regions of each participant were examined using ultrasonography to detect DTIs. RESULTS: DTIs were found in 15 players (68.2%). DTIs were more frequent in players with a central nervous system disorder (CNSd) (85.7%) than in those with skeletal system disease (SSd) (37.5%, p = 0.020), and in players using a wheelchair in daily life…(84.6%) than those using a wheelchair only for basketball (44.4%, p = 0.046). Players with pelvic instability were more likely to have DTIs (90.9% vs. 45.5%, p = 0.017). DTIs were deeper in the ischial region than the sacral region (p = 0.022). Players with CNSd had more DTIs in sacral regions (90% vs. 10%, p = 0.014). Players with DTIs had lower systolic blood pressure (sBP), red blood cell (RBC) count, and serum creatinine levels (sCr) (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Ischial DTIs were deeper than sacral DTIs. Players with CNSd had more sacral DTIs than those with SSd. CNSd, wheelchair use in daily life, pelvic instability, and lower sBP, RBC, and sCr increased the risk of DTIs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a commonly seen peripheral nerve mononeuropathy. Corticosteroid injection within the carpal tunnel is among the conservative treatment options. The exact mechanism of action of steroids is not fully clear; decreased inflammation surrounding nerves or tendons is thought to be the main effect. Lidocaine has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects on certain cells (monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils etc.). The aim of this study is to evaulate the efficacy of lidocaine treatment as a alternative to corticosteroid treatment in carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: A total of 67 carpal tunnel syndrome patients who…were diagnosed with physical examination and EMG were evaluated. Twenty-nine patients received a mixture of normal saline solution and lidocaine (0.5 cc of normal saline solution and 0.5 cc of lidocaine) while 38 patients were administered betamethasone dipropionate (1 cc). Quick DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were noted in 1st , 3rd and 6th month follow-ups. RESULTS: There were no significant difference between saline solution + Lidocaine group and betamethasone dipropionate groups; initial, 1st , 3rd and 6th month VAS scores and QDASH scores (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Considering the potential side effects of corticosteroid, lidocaine injection is a good alternative treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome instead of corticosteroids.
Abstract: Graded motor imagery (GMI) and mirror therapy (MT) is thought to improve pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types 1 and 2. However, the evidence is limited and analysis are not independent between types of CRPS. The purpose of this review was to analyze the effects of GMI and MT on pain in independent groups of patients with CRPS types 1 and 2. Searches for literature published between 1990 and 2016 were conducted in databases. Randomized controlled trials that compared GMI or MT with other treatments for CRPS types 1 and 2 were included. Six articles met…the inclusion criteria and were classified from moderate to high quality. The total sample was composed of 171 participants with CRPS type 1. Three studies presented GMI with 3 components and three studies only used the MT. The studies were heterogeneous in terms of sample size and the disorders that triggered CRPS type 1. There were no trials that included participants with CRPS type 2. GMI and MT can improve pain in patients with CRPS type 1; however, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend these therapies over other treatments given the small size and heterogeneity of the studied population.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Work-related musculoskeletal system diseases are commonly observed among nurses, physiotherapists, dentists, and dieticians. OBJECTIVE: To assess working postures of nurses, physiotherapists, dentists and dieticians, to identify whether low back pain (LBP) is present, and to put forth the correlation between LBP, working posture, and other factors. METHODS: Twenty seven physiotherapists, 34 nurses, 30 dentists, and 16 dieticians were included. Impairment ratings of cases with LBP were analysed with Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (Quebec). Working postures were analysed with Owako Working Posture Analysis System. RESULTS: LBP was observed in…70.09% of healthcare professionals. Of the individuals suffering from LBP, 57.2% were working with a risky posture. 40.63% of individuals without LBP were using risky working postures. Trunk and head posture distribution of individuals with and without LBP was found as different from each other (p < 0.05). LBP prevalence of dentists and nurses were higher compared to other groups (p < 0.05). Quebec scores of professionals with LBP were not different among occupations (p > 0.05). Quebec scores were observed as correlated with various factors in various occupation groups. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that head-neck and trunk postures are changeable factors that are among the factors affecting LBP, correcting the working posture gains importance.
Keywords: Nurse, physiotherapist, dentist, dietician, low back pain
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale is a well known tool to evaluate the functional balance. Balance impairment may accompany to knee osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of ABC in knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. All the participants were evaluated by ABC and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used for the assessment of the knee related condition. RESULTS: Mean age was 64.7 ± 9.2. Eighty-five percent was…women. Mean ABC score was 53.5% and BBS score was 40. Interclass correlation coefficient was 0.95. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the test-retest results (t= 1.90, p= 0.063). Correlation coefficient was high (p= 0.001, r= 0.953). Cronbach's alpha was 0.97. There was a significant positive correlation between ABC-T and BBS, the symptoms, daily living activities and quality of life subscales of KOOS (r= 0.555, p< 0.001; r= 0.424, r= 0.379, r= 0.621, p< 0.01). ABC-T correlated negatively with the radiological severity (r = -0.316, p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ABC-T is a reproducible test with excellent internal consistency and construct validity in knee osteoarthritis. Balance confidence was moderate and related with the symptoms, daily living activities, disease severity and quality of life.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neck pain (NP) in adolescence is as frequent as in adulthood. However, the relationship between home posture habits and neck pain is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of NP and the association with home posture habits (HPH) in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with High School adolescents. Students answered questions regarding sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, HPH (illustration in the questionnaire), time (TV, computer, video-game) and the presence of NP. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association between HPH and NP. RESULTS: The prevalence of NP was 48.9%.…The ones who watched TV lying supine in bed for 2 hours or more a day yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 6.21 (1.45-26.52) for acute neck pain (ANP). Who watched TV and used the desktop in the slump posture yielded, respectively, an OR of 4.0 (1.63-9.85), and 2.03 (1.23-3.34) for chronic neck pain (CNP). The ones who frequently changed their positions while using the desktop and used it for 2 hours or more a day yielded an OR of 0.34 (0.14-0.85) for ANP. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the high prevalence of NP in adolescence and raise the association between some HPH and neck pain.