Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 30, issue 3
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: An alternative approach to facilitate movement and control through the trunk and pelvis is belly dancing. Investigations of belly dancing mechanics indicate similar muscular activation patterns of those known to influence chronic low back pain (cLBP). However, no documented studies have examined its effectiveness as a treatment for cLBP. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a standardized belly dance program in women with cLBP. METHODS: A single subject design was used to evaluate weekly outcomes during a three-week baseline period, six-week belly dance program, and again…at a two-month follow-up. Outcome measures for pain, disability, function, and fear-avoidance beliefs were utilized. RESULTS: Two subjects completed the program. No significant differences were noted during the baseline assessment period. At two months, subject one demonstrated change scores of -1.12, -1%, and 2.2 for pain, disability, and function respectively while subject two demonstrated change scores of 5.4, 5%, and 1.1 for pain, disability, and function, respectively. Subject one showed a clinically significant change score for both fear avoidance of work and physical activity, with score changes of 4 and 3.3, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest a standardized belly dance program may positively influence pain and function in women with cLBP.
Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine, lumbago, core stabilization, lumbopelvic
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To ensure accurate implementation of stabilization exercises in rehabilitation, physical therapists need to understand the muscle activation patterns of prescribed exercise. OBJECTIVE: Compare muscle activity during eight trunk and lumbar spine stabilization exercises of the Functional Kinetics concept by Klein-Vogelbach. METHODS: A controlled laboratory study with a single-group repeated-measures design was utilized to analyze surface electromyographic intensities of 14 female and 6 male young healthy participants performing eight exercises. Data were captured from the rectus abdominis, external/internal oblique and lumbar paraspinalis. The normalized muscle activation levels (maximum voluntary isometric contraction, MVIC) for…three repetitions during each exercise and muscle were analyzed. RESULTS: Side bridging (28 ± 20%MVIC) and advanced planking (29 ± 20%MVIC) reached the highest activity in the rectus abdominis. For external and internal oblique muscles, side bridging also showed the greatest activity of 99 ± 36%MVIC and 52 ± 25%MVIC, respectively. Apart from side bridging (52 ± 14%MVIC), the supine roll-out (31 ± 12%MVIC) and prone roll-out (31 ± 9%MVIC) showed the greatest activity for the paraspinalis. The advanced quadruped, seated back extension and flexion on chair/Swiss Ball, prone roll-out and advanced one-leg back bridging only yielded negligible muscle activities for the rectus abdominis (< 5%MVIC). CONCLUSION: Based on the data obtained, recommendations for selective trunk muscle activation during eight stabilization exercises were established, which will guide physical therapists in the development of exercises tailored to the needs of their patients.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. However, MPS is often under-diagnosed. The purpose of this study was to characterize practicing clinicians' perspectives of the current diagnostic criteria for MPS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used with a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire evaluated clinicians' perspective of the current diagnostic criteria for MPS. The sample population (n= 119) consisted of 40% family physicians, 31% physical medicine (PM) and rehabilitation specialists, 11% rheumatologists, 10% emergency room (ER) physicians, and 8% anesthesiologists specializing in chronic pain. RESULTS:…Our findings demonstrated that participating clinicians agree that ``point tenderness'' and ``pain reproduction'' are criteria for MPS. In contrast, the clinicians do not consider ``autonomic symptoms'' as an important criterion for MPS. The anesthesiologists view ``restricted range of motion'' as a criterion for MPS more than the other groups, and they tend to consider ``referred pain'' and ``pain reproduction'' as criteria. Physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists and anesthesiologists tend to view ``local twitch response'' more as a criterion for MPS compared with the other groups. Most groups of clinicians consider ``weakness without atrophy'' as an important MPS criterion except for family physicians. It is important to note that ``poor sleep'', ``daytime fatigue'' and ``cognitive symptoms'', which are not considered as MPS symptoms, are often mistaken for MPS among practicing clinicians. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the diagnostic criteria are not well known, highlighting the need for an expert consensus to determine the importance of each criterion for MPS diagnosis.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Estimation of elbow dynamics has been the object of numerous investigations. OBJECTIVE: In this work a solution is proposed for estimating elbow movement velocity and elbow joint angle from Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals. METHODS: Here the Surface Electromyography signals are acquired from the biceps brachii muscle of human hand. Two time-domain parameters, Integrated EMG (IEMG) and Zero Crossing (ZC), are extracted from the Surface Electromyography signal. The relationship between the time domain parameters, IEMG and ZC with elbow angular displacement and elbow angular velocity during extension and flexion of the elbow are…studied. A multiple input-multiple output model is derived for identifying the kinematics of elbow. A Nonlinear Auto Regressive with eXogenous inputs (NARX) structure based multiple layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) model is proposed for the estimation of elbow joint angle and elbow angular velocity. The proposed NARX MLPNN model is trained using Levenberg-marquardt based algorithm. RESULTS: The proposed model is estimating the elbow joint angle and elbow movement angular velocity with appreciable accuracy. The model is validated using regression coefficient value (R). The average regression coefficient value (R) obtained for elbow angular displacement prediction is 0.9641 and for the elbow anglular velocity prediction is 0.9347. CONCLUSION: The Nonlinear Auto Regressive with eXogenous inputs (NARX) structure based multiple layer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN) model can be used for the estimation of angular displacement and movement angular velocity of the elbow with good accuracy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Different characteristics of foot morphology are commonly accompanied by altering lower extremity biomechanical characteristics and foot function. Clarifying what factors affect foot morphology is helpful in understanding the basis of foot deformity and foot dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of foot morphology and whether related factors such as gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and bilateral asymmetry have an impact on foot morphology. METHODS: One hundred and eighty adults without exercise habit were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were categorized by gender, age, BMI, and…left and right foot respectively to compare foot morphology differences. The characteristics of foot morphology were measured using a 3D foot scanner. RESULTS: Compared with females, males had longer, larger and higher feet. In terms of age differences, older adults had shorter and stiffer feet. Regarding BMI differences, the value of height and width parameters of foot was larger, and the value of height of arch also larger in those with greater BMI. Regarding bilateral asymmetry, the right foot had a higher foot than the left foot. Multiple linear regression models indicated that gender, age and BMI significantly affected length and girth parameters of foot together. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that gender has a bigger impact on length, width, height and girth parameters of foot than BMI or age. BMI has an impact on both arch height and stiffness. Besides, bilateral asymmetry affects values of height parameters of foot and arch.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) is used in the management of frozen shoulder. There are no evidences from the literature that can determine how many blocks and the interval between them. OBJECTIVE: To compare between single and multiple (nine) SSNB in the treatment of diabetic frozen shoulder. METHODS: Ninety six patients with Type 2 diabetic and a frozen shoulder divided into 2 equal groups. Patients in group1 were subjected to single SSNB. Patients in group 2 were subjected to multiple (nine) SSNB. Participants were assessed clinically and by ultrasound at baseline and after…3 weeks and 4 months. RESULTS: After 3 weeks, there was a significant improvement of all clinical & ultrasound parameters in both groups. But the improvement in group 2 was significantly better than the improvement in group 1. Also after 4 months, all parameters in both groups showed a further improvement in comparison with the base line parameters but still there was a highly significant improvement in group 2 versus group1. CONCLUSION: A course of multiple (nine) injections for suprascapular nerve block gave a better outcome than a single injection for suprascapular nerve block.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) causes pain and working day loss when activated. Patients spend most of their time in the hospital. And also it may limit patients' daily living activities. Kinesio Taping (KT) is a method that can be easily applied to the patients and does not interfere with their daily activities or movements of body. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of KT in patients with low back pain due to LDH. METHODS: Randomised-placebo controlled double blind clinical trial. Sixty Patients with low back pain due to LDH were randomised as…KT group or placebo taping group. Taping was performed once a week for three weeks. Patients were followed up during twelve weeks. Numeric rating scale (NRS), lumbar flexion, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and paracetamol tablets taken were used for outcome measurements. RESULTS: Demographic and clinical features of the groups were similar. There were significant improvements in all parameters during intervention period in groups. Improvements in NRS-activity, HAQ and ODI continued to twelfth weeks only in KT group. In KT group, analgesic need was significantly less at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: KT reduced analgesic need of patients with LDH when compared with placebo taping.
Keywords: Lumbar disc herniation, low back pain, Kinesio Taping, randomised controlled study
Abstract: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several diagnostic criteria sets are described in the literature to identify low back pain subtypes, but very little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these criteria. We conducted a study to determine the reliability of diagnostic tests that point towards SI joint-, disc- or facet joint pain. METHODS: Inter-rater reliability study alongside three randomized clinical trials. Multidisciplinary pain center of general hospital. Patients aged 18 or more with medical history and physical examination suggestive of sacroiliac joint-, disc- and facet joint pain on lumbar level. Making use of nowadays most common used diagnostic…criteria, a physical examination is taken independently by three physicians (two pain physicians and one orthopedic surgeon). Inter-rater reliability (Kappa (κ) measure of agreement) and significance (p) between raters are presented. Strengths of agreement, indicated with κ values above 0,20, are presented in order of agreement. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. None of the parameters from the physical investigation had κ values of more than 0.21 (fair) in all pairs of raters. Between two raters (C and D), there was an almost perfect agreement on three parameters, more specifically ``Abnormal sensory and motor examination, hyperactive or diminished reflexes'', ``Sitting exam shows no reflex, motor or sensory signs in the legs'' and ``Straight leg raising (Laségue) negative between 30 and 70 degrees of flexion''. The ``Drop test positive'' parameters had moderate strength of agreement between raters A and D and fair strength between raters A and B. The ``Digital interspinous pressure test positive'' had moderate strength of agreement between raters C and D and fair strength of agreement between raters A and B as well as raters B and C. Three other parameters had a fair strength of agreement between two raters, all other parameters had a slight or poor strength of agreement. Inter-rater reliability, confidence intervals and significance of pooled items for SI joint-, disc- and facet joint pain are represented; κ values for the pooled parameters of the physical examination suggestive of SI joint pain stayed below 0.20 between all raters. The same applies for the pooled parameters of the physical examination suggestive of facet joint or disc pain. CONCLUSIONS: The poor reliability of the diagnostic parameters seriously limits their predictive validity, and as such their use in patients with low back pain for more than 3 months.
Keywords: Reliability and validity, reliability of results, diagnostic equipment, low back pain, sacroiliac joint, facet joint
Abstract: STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study in Chinese Han people. PURPOSE: To explore whether promoter polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) (rs3025058) and interleukin-6(IL-6) (rs1800795) genes are associated to AIS gender bias. METHODS: A total of 200 patients (100 boys and 100 girls) with AIS and 200 healthy age-matched adolescents were recruited from July 2008 to August 2013 in our scoliosis center. All AIS patients had Cobb angles larger than 20°, average 43 ± 3.6° (range 24-72°). A case-control study using genotypic technique was conducted to explore whether promoter polymorphisms of MMP-3 and IL-6…were associated to AIS gender bias. In addition, to confirm the association between gene variants of MMP-3 and IL-6 and AIS. Statistical analysis of genotype frequencies between AIS patients and normal controls was performed by X^2 test. RESULTS: The frequency of 5A/5A genotype of MMP-3 gene in patients with AIS was higher than in controls (19% versus 9.5% p= 0.007), in the sub-divided groups depend on gender, no significant difference was found between AIS girls and boys in the frequency of 5A/5A genotype of MMP-3 (20% in girls versus 18% in boys p= 0.718). No significant difference was found between AIS and controls in the frequency of G/G genotype of IL-6 (97.5% versus 98%). In the sub-divided groups depend on gender, no significant difference was found between AIS girls and boys in the frequency of G/G genotype of the IL-6 gene (98% in girls versus 97% for boys). CONCLUSIONS: The promoter polymorphism of the MMP-3 gene was confirmed to have an association with AIS and the promoter polymorphism of the IL-6 gene was lack of association with AIS. Besides, both gene variants of MMP-3 and IL-6 were not associated to AIS gender bias.
Abstract: BACKROUND: The aim of our study is to examine effects of aerobic and Pilates exercises on disability, cognition, physical performance, balance, depression and fatigue in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: The subjects were divided as aerobic exercise (n = 26), Pilates (n = 9), and the healthy control group (n = 21). We used MSFC, physical performance, Berg balance scale, Beck depression scale, fatigue impact scale. All evaluations were performed before and after exercise training. RESULTS: There are statistically meaningful differences between Nine hole testing, PASAT 3,…physical performance and fatique impact scale before and after aerobic exercise. Also we found significant difference for physical performance in the Pilates group. There are no significant differences in measures of fatique impact scale and depression between aerobic exercise group and the healthy controls after exercise. We found significant differences between Pilates and control group's after measurements except depression. There were significant differences between the Pilates and aerobic group for cognitive tests in favor of the Pilates group. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise and clinical Pilates exercises revealed moderate changes in levels of cognitive, physical performance, balance, depression, fatigue in MS patients.