International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine - Volume 17, issue 3-4
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The International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine is concerned with rendering the practice of medicine as safe as it can be; that involves promoting the highest possible quality of care, but also examining how those risks which are inevitable can be contained and managed.
This is not exclusively a drugs journal. Recently it was decided to include in the subtitle of the journal three items to better indicate the scope of the journal, i.e. patient safety, pharmacovigilance and liability and the Editorial Board was adjusted accordingly. For each of these sections an Associate Editor was invited. We especially want to emphasize patient safety. Our journal wants to publish high quality interdisciplinary papers related to patient safety, not the ones for domain specialists. For quite some time we have also been devoting some pages in every issue to what we simply call WHO news. This affinity with WHO underlines both the International character of the journal and the subject matter we want to cover. Basic research, reports of clinical experience and overviews will all be considered for publication, but since major reviews of the literature are often written at the invitation of the Editorial Board it is generally advisable to consult with the Editor in advance. Submission of news items will be appreciated, as will be the contribution of letters on topics which have been dealt with in the journal.
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is a considerable and growing health threat in Europe and the rest of the world. Even though antibiotic resistance is inevitably coupled to the use of antibiotics and the problem may be partly irreversible, proper action can and should be taken to contain antibiotic resistance. We urge the European Union, scientists, healthcare workers, patients and their advocates, politicians, and educators to consider, contribute to, and become advocates of the implementation of a plan of action. Once we all contribute, we can become optimistic about controlling antibiotic resistance.
Abstract: The array of mechanisms that bacteria possess to withstand extreme conditions and to resist harmful drugs and other toxic agents compounds is fascinating. Use of antibacterial medicines over the last 60 years have triggered a combination of genetic and biochemical mechanisms within the bacteria to secure their survival in otherwise lethal environments. Bacterial clones with natural and acquired resistance have continuously been selected as an evolutionary response to the use of antibiotics. Resistance can be acquired as a result of genetic events causing alterations in the pre-existing bacterial genome such as point mutations and gene amplifications. The other major mechanism…is horizontal gene transfer between bacteria both within and between species, where transposons, integrons or plasmids are introduced into an organism. The successive introduction of new antibiotics has catalysed the accumulation of resistance mechanisms that travel between microbes, creating clones with multiresistant properties.
Abstract: Although optimists once imagined that serious infectious disease threats would by now be conquered, newly emerging (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), re-emerging (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax bioterrorism) continue to appear throughout the world. Over the past decade, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world's most dangerous pathogens has resulted in considerable progress. Intramural and extramural investigators supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have contributed…substantially to this effort. This overview highlights selected NIAID-sponsored research advances over the past decade, with a focus on progress in combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, and potential bioterror agents. Many basic research discoveries have been translated into novel diagnostics, antiviral and antimicrobial compounds, and vaccines, often with extraordinary speed.
Keywords: Infectious disease, drug resistance, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, bioterrorrism