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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Numerical simulations of flow in straight elastic (moving wall) tubes subjected to a sinusoidal pressure gradient were performed for conditions prevailing in large and medium sized arteries. The effects of varying the phase angle between the pressure gradient and the tube radius, the amplitude of wall motion, and the unsteadiness parameter (α ) on flow rate and wall shear stress were investigated. Mean and peak flow rates and shear stresses were found to be strongly affected by the phase angle between the pressure gradient and the tube radius with greater sensitivity at higher diameter variation and higher α . In…large artery simulations (α = 12), mean flow rate was found to be 60% higher and peak flow rate to be 73% higher than corresponding rigid tube values for certain phase angles, while a threefold increase in mean wall shear stress and sevenfold increase in peak wall shear stress were observed in a sensitive phase angle range. Significant reversal in the wall shear stress direction occurred in the sensitive phase angle range even when there was negligible flow rate reversal. All effects were greatly diminished in simulations of medium sized vessels (α = 4). Some experimental evidence to support the predictions of a strong effect of phase angle on wall shear stress in large vessels is presented. Finally, physiological implications of the present work are discussed from a basis of aortic input impedance data, and a physical explanation for the extreme sensitivity of the flow field to small amplitude wall motion at high α is given.
Abstract: Taking into consideration the slip velocity at the wall of a blood vessel, a mathematical model is developed in the paper for the study of blood flow through a mammalian blood vessel in the presence of a stenosis. By employing the momentum integral technique, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, pressure gradient and skin-friction are derived. The condition for an adverse pressure gradient is also deduced. It is observed that the slip velocity bears the potential to influence the velocity distribution of blood to a remarkable extent and to reduce considerably the pressure-gradient as well as the skin-friction.
Abstract: A three-dimensional dyadic form of the Walburn-Schneck constitutive equation for blood is presented. The dyadic equation is demonstrated to have the symmetries of material frame indifference and flow reversal and to be consistent with the scalar equation in Couette flow. The problem of flow in a tube of circular cross section is solved as an example.
Abstract: The membrane viscosity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of equine, bovine and canine was measured by the use of time-resolved fluorescence depolarization technique with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene(DPH). The viscosity values were 0.55, 0.59 and 0.50 poise for equine, bovine and canine PBLs, respectively. These values were compared with steady-state anisotropies and order parameters measured from electron spin resonance (ESR) of 5-doxyl stearic acid. Both values were increased with increase of viscosity. The fluid property of the membranes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA) was measured with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and ESR. Little change of membrane fluidity was recognized with both methods during the…stimulation with PHA. It appears that PHA activation process for these lymphocytes does not include large increase of the membrane fluidity which significantly accelerate the diffusion velocity of receptors in the plasma membrane.
Abstract: A mixture theory has been used to formulate a theory of blood perfusion. By means of a formal averaging procedure the discrete network of microvessels is transformed into a continuum. During this procedure, the distinction between arterioles, capillaries and venules is preserved by means of an arteriovenous parameter. In this paper, two equations are derived for the case of low Reynolds number steady-state flow through a rigid vessel network: the extended Darcy equation and the continuity equation. A verification of the theory is presented, on the basis of a network analysis.
Abstract: This research aims at formulating and verifying a finite element mixture formulation for blood perfusion. The equations derived in a companion paper [Huyghe, J.M., Oomens, C.W., Campen, D.H., van Heethaar, R.M., A mixture theory of low Reynolds steady state flow through a branching network of rigid vessels. Biorheology, submitted for publication, 1988.] are discretized according to the Galerkin method. A flow experiment in a rigid model of a vascular tree of about 500 vessels is performed in order to verify the finite element mixture formulation. Although the comparison of numerical results and experimental measurements is not conclusive as far as…the validity of the theory is concerned, the results do suggest that the finite element model has predictive power in the case of low Reynolds number steady state flow of a Newtonian fluid in a rigid vascular tree.