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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The arterial blood flow waveform is shown to change abruptly when passing from the thoracic aorta into the abdominal aorta in humans. Although this change has been accurately predicted by numerical solution of complicated pulse propagation equations, this paper demonstrates the ability of a simple lumped parameter model to explain this change in the waveforms using easily understood physical terms. The model correctly predicts changes in flow waveform under conditions of exercise and peripheral vascular disease. This analysis is useful in understanding abdominal artery physiology and explains the basis for clinical ultrasound Doppler examination of the legs.
Keywords: Pulsatile flow, aorta, capacitance, reverse flow, blood flow, human
vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 835-842, 1988
Abstract: Under conditions of high pressure difference micropipette aspiration experiments show a “pinch-off” phenomenon as observed by Rand (Mechanical properties of the red cell membrane: II. Viscoelastic breakdown of the membrane. Biophys. J. 4, 303–316, 1964). In a very recent paper, Meier et. al (Fission and refusion of red blood cells using a micropipette technique. Biorheology 24, 287–296, 1987) have reported about new data obtained with a modern electronic technique under moderate mechanical load. We have theoretically analysed the conditions necessary to form such a instability. In our approximations we have investigated the effective transmembrane pressure difference which is given both…by the true pressure drop, determined by the hydrodynamic flow through a small gap between the cell tongue and the pipette wall and the interaction between the tongue and the wall, as well as by the nonisotropic part of the membrane tension. When the membrane tongue is long enough (> 3Rp ) we have found a condition for the loss of membrane stability in a point where a minimum of the effective transmembrane pressure drop occurs. An expression for it and the vesicle size are given.
Abstract: The contribution of erythrocyte deformability to the pulmonary vascular resistance during hypoxia indifferent animal species has not been examined. We hypothesized that the increase in pulmonary vascular resistance during hypoxia was partially due to erythrocytes (RBC’s) becoming less deformable during hypoxia, and therefore their transit in the capillaries becomes restricted. To test this, we measured an index of deformability of RBC’s from six animal species (dog, pig, cat, rabbit, hamster, rat) during normoxic and hypoxic condition, and compared the changes in deformability with the pulmonary hypoxic pressor response (HPR) which has been reported in the same species. Deformability was indexed…as the resistance that a Hemafil polycarbonate membrane (Nucleopore filter, 4.7 μ m pores) offers to a 10% suspension of RBC’s. The RBC suspension was either normoxic (PO2 = 150 torr) or hypoxic (PO2 = 50 torr). We found that hypoxia decreased RBC deformability; the largest decrease occurred in rat RBC’s, a small but significant decrease was observed in the RBC’s of cats, rabbits and hamsters, but no change was detected in RBC’s of dogs or pigs. In general, such changes in deformability do not correlate well with the HPR in intact or in isolated lungs, for example the pig, had the largest HPR but the smallest change in RBC deformability. In some species, however, there was a positive correlation between RBC deformability and HPR, for example rats, rabbits and cats are usually better responders than dogs and hamsters, similarly the deformability of RBC’s in rats, rabbits and cats were also more influenced by hypoxia than RBC’ s from dogs. The limiting factors in this relationship are the artificial conditions which were used to measure deformability and HPR, both may be different than in the intact conditions. Nevertheless the present data show that erythrocytes of some species can become less flexible during hypoxia, and hence may impede the transit in the capillaries. Therefore we propose that the hypoxic pressor response in the pulmonary vasculature may be partly due to smooth muscle contraction (vasoconstriction) and partly due to a decrease in erythrocyte deformability (capillary obstruction). Both components are likely to be species dependent.
Abstract: In the cholesterol-fed rabbits, we observed that the whole blood viscosity was maintained at the normal level in spite of the decrease in hematocrit. This phenomenon suggests that there exists some visco-regulatory mechanism, and we could simulate it by a simple integration type model.
Abstract: The influence of electric field on unsteady convective diffusion in couple stress flow is studied using a time, dependent dispersion model. The electric field, arising as a body couple in the governing equations, is shown to increase the axial dispersion coefficient. This is useful in the control of haemolysis caused by artificial organs implanted or extracorporeal. The contribution of pure convection in the dispersion of concentration is singled out and investigated in detail. The results obtained are compared with those in the absence of electric field and some important conclusions are drawn.
Keywords: Haemolysis, Electric field, Dispersion, Biomechanics
vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 879-890, 1988