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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The rather explosive advancement of the life sciences during the past few decades has been most surprising. This rapid advancement includes the science of biorheology and its different fields. The author pointed out that biorheology is the missing link in most life sciences. Biorheologists who are working in one of the fields of biorheology will need to acquaint themselves with other life sciences so that new techniques, instrumentations, methods and the needed skill can be developed successfully for rheological measurements to advance these sciences and biorheology. At the core of these developments are more adequate approaches for quantitative measurements of…the deformation and flow properties pertaining to biological phenomena and processes. Many of these new approaches are demonstrated in the presentations at this International Satellite Symposium of the 5. International Congress of Biorheology. These new technological developments promise to expand greatly the scope of biorheology, both fundamentally and in the applied fields of clinical biorheology including hemorheology. These new methods also concern the diagnosis and therapy of various diseases and pathological conditions as well as their prevention. All in all, this Symposium promises to be a milestone in the science of biorheology and to serve in securing and maintaining the health of the human species.
Abstract: In vitro rheological studies on clotting of fibrinogen solution, plasma and blood are reviewed. Multiple viscoelastorecorder (MVER) and viscoelastorecorder (VER) were developed for determining the dynamic rigidity modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) during clotting. The effect of some parameters on clotting and the properties of fibrin clot are discussed. The parameters include measuring frequency, measuring shear strain and surface coating of measuring cell. The change of dynamic rigidity during clotting was compared between normal plasma and plasma from patient with Glanzmann’s disease. By detecting the stress at the higher harmonic frequency, the non-linear terms of G′ and G″ were…determined.
Keywords: blood clotting, viscoelasticity, fibrinogen, platelet and plasma
Abstract: Resonance Thrombography is a method to follow up the coagulation process ex vivo from its very beginning up to its final consolidation phase resp. fibrinolysis. The mode of measurement is adopting the resonance effect of fibrin elasticity. The connection of a cylindric rod and outer cylinder by elastic fibrin fibres will increase the potential natural frequency (38 Hz) of the elastically suspended rod, to which a constant orbital drive of a very small radius is imported electronically. Change of difference between constant drive frequency and varying resonance frequency over time will result in sensitive registration of the Resonance Thrombogram (RTG).…The orbital movement of the rod causes a circular flow of blood as long as it is fluid. The speed of flow is comparable to that in a medium sized vein, resembling a physiological situation. The clinical application of RTGraphy is regarding the fact, that there is practically no disturbance of clotting process which is not represented in any change of clot construction. Diagnosis of DIC, demonstration of 5FMC as well as of fibrinolysis, differentiation between the effect of fibrin structure and of platelet activity are among the clinical assignments of RTGraphy.
Keywords: Resonance Thrombography
vol. 23, no. s1, pp. 15-22, 1984
Abstract: The theories and spatial concepts of Karl Weissenberg have been applied to the science of biorheology by employing the Weissenberg Rheogoniometer. Two main types of experimental methods have been used for the characterization of the bulk shear properties of biorheological fluids: (A) In continuous laminar shearing motion, the tangential and normal components of stress are measured at a series of rates of shear. From these parameters, the apparent viscosity, an elastic modulus and a recoverable strain, are calculated as functions of the rate of shear. In this continuous shear experiment, the physical structure present in the material at any given…rate of shear may be quite different from the material in its rest state or at other rates of shear. (B) In harmonic oscillatory motion, the material is subjected to a harmonic laminar shear about its rest state at a number of frequencies and small strain amplitudes. From these experiments the dynamic moduli of viscosity and elasticity are calculated. Preparations of biological materials, such as whole blood and systems of blood components, both in health and disease states, have been investigated using methods A and B, together with studies of surface layers of plasma proteins at interfaces.
Abstract: OP-Rheometer is a rotational viscometer of concentric type, which was developed to measure blood viscosity at low shear rate (0.2–40 sec−1 ) and viscoelasticity at 0.1–3.0 Hz in the context of clinical medicine. This system consists of a mechanical unit, a control unit (console), a data processing unit and a printer. The dynamic or steady state flow data are automatically printed out. An outer cylinder (sample container) is connected to a torsion wire assembly supported by a pair of magnetic bearings. The angular displacement is detected by a pair of variable differential transformers. In clinical application of this rheometer, authors…have confirmed that the viscosity and viscoelasticity of blood from diabetic patients are higher than for normal subjects.
Abstract: Viscoelastic evaluation of aggregation and agglutination of red blood cells was attempted. A concentric double cylinder viscoelastometer was used for determining the dynamic rigidity modulus and loss modulus of blood sample. The dynamic rigidity modulus of horse blood were measured over a wide range of hematocrit. The relation between the viscoelastic behavior and the erythrocyte sedimentation was examined. The change in the amount of surface charge of enzyme treated red blood cells was qualitatively estimated from the measurements of dynamic viscoelasticity of red blood cells suspension with added poly-L-lysine. The dynamic rigidity modulus of red blood cells agglutinated by adding…lectin (concanavalin A) were also measured.
Keywords: viscoelasticity, rouleau, erythrocyte sedimentation, concanavalin A
vol. 23, no. s1, pp. 43-47, 1984
Abstract: The recent development of specific methods to measure directly the microrheological determinants of blood fluidity allows to complement or even substitute global measurements of whole blood apparent viscosity or filtrability through sieves containing restricted pores. While such differentiation is mandatory for practical and theoretical reasons, there is the danger of loosing coherence of measurements essential for correlating hemorheology to other sciences. In an attempt to document hemorheological data in a simple yet comprehensive fashion, a test profile for the display of normalized data from subtests on hematocrit, plasma viscosity, red cell “rigidity” and tendency to red cell aggregation is…proposed. Using procedures developed in the behavioural sciences, string end criteria for evaluating the validity, reliability, standardization, economy and usefulness of individual subtests for the blood viscosity determinants and a compounded hemorheology test profile are proposed. There is good evidence that abnormal hemorheological behaviour of red cell plasma mixtures manifest themselves exclusively in situations associated with grossly reduced in vivo driving pressures and thence shear stresses. In these situations, in which a low flow state is caused by general hemodynamic changes, there is a danger that the blood looses its normal fluidity and undergoes a reversible viscidation: We propose the hypothesis that in these situation abnormally blood poses a risk of a flow limitation (and even interruption) by rheological abnormalities described above. The test profile presented has been developed to supply a more valid experimental method for subjecting the above hypothesis to experimental tests in the clinical situation.
Keywords: Data processing in hemorheology, hematocrit measurement, plasma viscosity, red cell aggregometry, red cell rigidometry, standardization of tests, test profile, test battery, validation of tests
vol. 23, no. s1, pp. 49-62, 1984
Abstract: The aim of practice of clinical haemorheology is to study patients who might present themselves with or without any clinical symptoms but who might suffer from silent or overt cardiovascular disorders, some forms of cancer, anxiety, etc. A presence and a prognosis of these disorders are linked to an increase and/or abnormality of one or more of the blood viscosity factors: blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, red cell aggregation and rigidity, platelet aggregation, ability for formation of thrombi, flow instability, etc. Hyperviscosaemia might be present in spite of normal or low viscosity of the whole blood. Different disorders can be described…by ‘profiles of viscosity factors’ which form a rheological fingerprint specific to a particular disease or a group of disorders. Determination of viscosity factors is carried out utilizing a series of instruments: (a) rotational viscometers, (b) capillary viscometers, (c) erythrocyte sedimentation tubes in 20C and 37C water tanks, (d) variable frequency thrombo-viscometer, (e) slit-capillary photo-viscometer, etc. One known factor which is not measured routinely is ‘inversion phenomenon’, and this is due to complexity and expense of measurements. Biochemical studies, including fibrinogen assay and estimation of AB0 blood groups, are carried out. Effect of drugs on blood viscosity factors can be studied in vitro or in vivo.
Keywords: clinical haemorheology, viscometry, diagnosis and prognosis, aggregation of red cells, rigidity of red cells, thrombi
vol. 23, no. s1, pp. 63-69, 1984
Abstract: Patients with chronic arterial disorders (CAD) frequently exhibit rheological alterations of the blood beneath generalisated sclerosing of the vessels and restricted arterial diameters. Alterations of different rheological parameters were determined in more than 80% of the examined patients. The following parameters were measured: yield shear stress in the ESM, hematocrit level in the IHA, plasma viscosity in the CTPV, standardized erythrocyte aggregation index in the MEA and standardized erythrocyte rigidity index in the SER.
vol. 23, no. s1, pp. 71-74, 1984