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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The adhesion and detachment of human washed platelets was studied on the surface of the larger tube of a tubular expansion. Measurements were made within the vortex, at the reattachment point and downstream of the vortex. Fluorescent video-microscopy of mepacrine labelled platelets was used to record data continuously. Flow was from the smaller to the larger tube at Reynolds numbers (based on upstream conditions) of 75.4 and 212.2. Measurements of the adhesion efficiency for initially contacting cells and an overall adhesion efficiency were made. These efficiencies decreased with increasing Reynolds number. There was a pattern of variability for both efficiencies…with respect to position and Reynolds number which is consistent with the generation of the unstable flow at the reattachment point.
Abstract: The appropriateness of several elastic constitutive laws for apple and potato cell walls is tested using uniform cell inflation data. Whole-tissue stress-strain behavior under uniaxial loading is predicted from an analysis of the compression of a conglomerate of cells in a simple arrangement.
Abstract: The viscosity and the order in the interior of human erythrocyte membranes were investigated by the fluorescence depolarization technique in the nanosecond region with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). After pulsed excitation with a polarized light, the fluorescence anisotropy ratio of DPH in membranes rapidly decreased and gave a final value (r∞ ). The rate of initial decrease and the value of r∞ related to the viscosity in the interior of the membranes and a wobbling angle of DPH which reflects a size of range for the phospholipid motion relating to the order of membrane structure. For normal human erythrocyte…membranes the viscosity and the wobbling angle were obtained to be 0.82 poise and 42°, at 37°C. Similar values were obtained for spectrin-free membranes. Hardened membranes by the cross-linking of the cytoskeletal proteins with glutaraldehyde showed a small wobbling angle of 37°, but the viscosity of them was unchanged.
Abstract: The Authors have looked at six proprietary rotational viscometers. It was not practicable to examine them all in the same detail, but the information suffices to show how results of reasonable accuracy may be obtained from any of them. Tests on Newtonian liquids show that these instruments have calibration-factors which are essentially functions of the shear-rate to which the calibrant is subjected. In some cases, the calibration factor is also strongly dependent upon the viscosity of the calibrant itself. However, it is shown that all of these instruments can yield results on Newtonian liquids with an accuracy of about ±…3%, but only at rates of shear involving sufficiently high torques. Having looked at the different responses of these individual instruments, the Authors recommend that users should calibrate their own instruments against a range of Newtonian liquids. The accuracies mentioned above are, of course, for Newtonian liquids; and when the viscometer is used in blood-studies, adoption of a wider error-band may be necessary.
Keywords: Blood viscosity, Hematocrit
vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 485-498, 1986
Abstract: The effects of non-Newtonian nature of blood and pulsatility on flow through a stenosed tube have been investigated. A perturbation method is used to analyse the flow. It is of interest to note that the thickness of the viscous flow region is non-uniform (changing with axial distance). An analytic relation between viscous flow region thickness and red cell concentration has been obtained. It is important to mention that some researchers have obtained an approximate solution for the flow rate-pressure gradient equation (assuming the ratio between the yield stress and the wall shear to be very small in comparison to unity);…in the present analysis, we have obtained an exact solution for this non-linear equation without making that assumption. The approximate and exact solutions compare well with one of the exact solutions. Another important result is that the mean and steady flow rates decrease as the yield stress θ increases. For the low values of the yield stress, the mean flow rate is higher than the steady flow rate, but for high values of the yield stress, the mean flow rate behaviour is of opposite nature. The critical value of the yield stress at which the flow rate behaviour changes from one type to another has been determined. Further, it seems that there exists a value of the yield stress at which flow stops for both the flows (steady and pulsatile). It is observed that the flow stop yield value for pulsatile flow is lower than the steady flow. The most notable result of pulsatility is the phase lag between the pressure gradient and flow rate, which is further influenced by the yield stress and stenosis. Another important result of pulsatility is the mean resistance to flow is greater than its steady flow value, whereas the mean value of the wall shear for pulsatile flow is equal to steady wall shear. Many standard results regarding Casson and Newtonian fluids flow, uniform tube flow and steady flow can be obtained as the special cases of the present analysis. Finally, some applications of this theoretical analysis have been cited.