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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: In malignant tumors, spontaneous arteriolar vasomotion disappeared already during earliest tumor growth (tumor weight less than 200 mg) suggesting that arterioles supplying a malignant tumor with blood are maximally dilated from the very beginning of tumor growth. As a result, the viscosity of blood becomes a limiting factor of tissue perfusion. To evaluate the effects of isovolemic hemodilution in a malignant tumor, a transparent chamber model was used in conjunction with a subcutaneously growing amelanotic melanoma of the hamster. Quantitative intravital microscopy (video image analysis) and a platinum multiwire electrode were utilized to study the tumor microcirculation. Isovolemic hemodilution was…performed by exchange of blood vs. Dextran 60 to lower the systemic hematocrit to 30% in 21 animals. Capillary flow increased significantly and improved tissue pO2 on the tumor’s surface without any change in capillary density. Since tumor growth was accelerated after hemodilution, these data suggest to combine with hemodilution other treatment modalities to improve blood-mediated tumor therapy.
Abstract: Experiments are performed to study the influence of local hemodilution on tumor blood flow, oxygen availability in tumor tissue and O2 consumption of cancer cells. The results obtained clearly show that hemodilution in isolated tumor perfusion can distinctly improve nutritive blood flow through solid tumors. This can be utilized to enhance pharmacokinetics of antitumor drugs. Due to the improved metabolic status, the pharmacodynamics of some antitumor drugs should also be enhanced. To achieve a maximum improvement of the O2 supply to the tumor, hematocrit values should not be decreased below 0.20.
Abstract: Differences in blood perfusion rates between tumors and normal tissue can be utilized to selectively heat many solid tumors. Blood flow in normal tissues is considerably increased at temperatures commonly applied during localized hyperthermia. In contrast, tumor blood flow may respond to localized heat typically in two different blood flow patterns: Flow may either decrease continuously with increasing exposure time and/or temperature or flow may exhibit a transient increase followed by a decline. A decrease in blood flow at high thermal doses can be observed in most of the tumors, whereas an increase in flow at low thermal doses seems…to occur less frequently. The inhibition of blood flow at high thermal doses may lead to physiological changes in the microenvironment of the cancer cells that increase the cell killing effect of hyperthermia. Flow increases at low thermal doses can enhance the efficiency of other treatment modalities, such as irradiation or the administration of antiproliferate drugs.
Abstract: Single vessel responses to hyperthermia were studied in tumor and normal tissues using a transparent access window chamber. Rates of heating ⩽ .68°C/minute preserved relatively better vascular function in normal than tumor tissue. A rate of heating of 1.0°C/minute lowered normal tissue stasis temperatures so they were no different from tumor. Cooling to 30°C prior to heating slowed normal arteriolar flows to < 5% of 38°C controls. Heating resulted in increased flow in those vessels, but maximum flows never exceeded 5% of flows achieved in similar vessels which were not cooled first. The implications of this work are that rate…of heating and cooling prior to heating can alter normal tissue vascular response to heat in a way that could prove deleterious to maintaining efficient vascular function in that tissue relative to tumor.
Keywords: Microcirculation, Vascular stasis, Heating rate, Tumor, Normal tissue
vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 539-558, 1984
Abstract: The evidence for a hemodynamic involvement and possible mechanisms by which hemodynamic-related events could influence the arterial wall, and in particular the vascular endothelium, are reviewed and used to speculate on the role of fluid mechanics in atherogenesis and specifically in lesion localization. The evidence presented suggests that it is vascular geometry, and the way it influences the local detailed flow properties, which is the primary determinant of a hemodynamic effect on the arterial wall and in the initiation of atherosclerosis.
Abstract: In addition to biochemical factors, hydromechanical influences are responsible for atherogenesis and deposits of blood platelets at bends and bifurcations of human arteries. Hence the flow patterns were simulated in a true-to-scale three-dimensional bifurcation of a human renal artery model and of an arteria femoralis with Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood like fluid. Investigations were made with steady and pulsatile flow. The velocity profiles (at physiological Re-numbers) were measured after the bifurcations with a laser-Doppler-anemometer. In previous works Newtonian fluids were used to investigate the flow in bends and bifurcations of rigid and elastic simplified models. In this paper,…emphasis is placed on the difference between rigid and elastic models and also Newtonian and non Newtonian flow behavior. Differences between Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids may especially be expected to occur after branches where the flow has local strong convective elements such as in reverse zones and flow separation points.
Abstract: The relationship between blood flow and the localization of thrombosis and atherosclerosis in vivo was investigated using the approach and techniques of microrheology. The flow patterns and wall-adhesion of platelets were studied in the captive annular vortex formed at a sudden tubular expansion at various hematocrits in steady and pulsatile flow. The adhesion density exhibited a peak within the vortex and just downstream of the reattachment point, which is also a stagnation point. The peaks flattened out with increasing Reynolds number in steady flow and also in pulsatile flow. Platelet adhesion increased markedly with increasing hematocrit. The localization of…adhesion peaks was explained by curvature of the streamlines carrying platelets to the wall on either side of the reattachment point. The relevance of these results to the circulation is that stagnation points are found in regions of disturbed flow at various sites in the arterial and venous circulations. This was shown in experiments using a technique whereby flow was visualized in isolated transparent natural blood vessels prepared from dogs and humans postmortem. In dog saphenous vein bileaflet valves, there was a large primary spiral vortex as well as a smaller secondary vortex, the latter acting as a trap and generator of thrombi. Recirculation zones also existed in the dog aorta at T-junctions of the celiac, cranial mesenteric and renal arteries. Finally, in the human carotid bifurcation, a large standing recirculation zone consisting of spiral secondary flows formed in the carotid sinus at physiological flow conditions. In all these arterial flows there are streamlines impinging radially on the vessel wall which increase the local flux of platelets and plasma proteins and lipids and may lead to the genesis of thrombosis and atherosclerosis.
Abstract: A fine structure of blood flow through a curved vessel with an aneurysm was studied in in vitro experiments in relation to rheological factors of arterial diseases such as arteriosclerosis or thrombosis. On the basis of the in vivo data related to cerebral circulation, red blood cell suspension was flowed through curved vessel models with an asymmetrical aneurysm. Flow visualization was made with a microscope 16 mm cinecamera-TV monitor system, and the velocity profile was measured using the laser Doppler velocimeter. Vortices induced in aneurysm influenced flow structure and velocity at the presence of the secondary flow due…to the vessel curvature. This suggests strongly that blood flow in curved arteries with an aneurysm must be understood under the influence of the secondary flow.
Abstract: Vascular endothelial cells subjected to fluid shear stress change their shape from polygonal to ellipsoidal and become uniformly oriented with the flow. In order to study the mechanisms of this response, we have measured the relaxation of bovine aortic endothelial cells that were grown on glass coverslips and exposed to fluid shear stress for 72 hours. An image analysis system was developed to quantify the cell shape relaxation that occurs following the cessation of shear stress. This method provides two different quantitative measures of relaxation: the loss of elongated shape by the cells and the change in cell direction with…time. After equilibration to a fluid shear stress level of 8 dynes/cm2 , cells immersed in static medium relax their shape in about 20 hours. After 72 hours in this static condition, the cell elongation is comparable to that of unstressed control cells but vestiges remain of the original orientation in the flow direction. This relaxation process contributes to our understanding of the response of vascular endothelium to fluid shear stress.