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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: In order to explain the pathogenesis of regional atherosclerotic plaques, the solid-dynamical force is emphasized. The regi.onal stress and deformation in the arterial wall near the ostium hole for branching is analyzed within the framework of shallow shell approximation. A high concentration in the stress and deformation is demonstrated. Following making a theoretical explanation how the regional stress and deformation could be involved for the transport of molecules across the endothelium, a new factor of the regional initiation of atherosclerosis is proposed.
vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 223-230, 1979
Abstract: Fluid mechanical factors are probably involved in the localization of atherosclerotic lesions and the deposition of platelet thrombi at arterial branches where secondary flows and vortices develop. Hence, we have studied the flow patterns in glass models of 3 mm diameter right angled T-junctions with square or rounded corners. With flow entering through the main tube, cine films of the paths of microspheres in dilute suspensions were taken at inflow Reynolds number Reo from 15 to 420 and flow ratios Q1 /Q2 main: side tube from 0.05 to 4.0. In the square T-junction, paired vortices symmetrical about the common…median plane formed at the entrances of the main and side daughter tubes over a wide range of Reo and Q1 /Q2 . Particles spiralled in open streamlines through the large main vortex; some then crossed above or below the mainstream to the side tube and through the side vortex, downstream of which there was a double helical flow. At high Q1 /Q2 , only the side vortex was present. At Q1 /Q2 < 0.1 and Re0 > 100, a third vortex formed downstream of the main vortex. In the rounded T-junction, the main vortex was formed at a lower, and the side vortex at a higher Reo than in the square T-junction. When flow entered through the side tube, paired connected vortices were also formed, but only when one daughter tube was severely occluded.
vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 231-248, 1979
Abstract: In view of a possible contribution of turbulent flow upon atherogenesis, particularly at bifurcations of vessels, an evaluation of the nature of flow in man in the abdominal aorta and common iliac artery was made. Velocity was measured in eight resting patients with a hot film velocity probe. A particular effort was made to record velocity in the region of the bifurcation of the aorta at the common iliac arteries. No high frequency disturbances of velocity were observed in the abdominal aorta or common iliac arteries, either during systole or diastole in any of the patients. Peak velocity in the…aorta, at the level of the renal artery, was 28 ± 4 cm/sec (mean ± SEM), at the aortic bifurcation it was 27 ± 4 cm/sec and at the common iliac artery it was 24 ± 4 cm/sec. The peak Reynolds number, measured at the aortic bifurcation (in four patients), ranged from 400 to 1100, and in the common iliac artery it ranged from 390 to 620. Absence of turbulent flow in the abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries in resting patients suggests that turbulence does not initiate atherosclerosis in these areas. However, a possible contribution of turbulence to atherosclerosis, once plaque formation has caused an irregularity of arterial walls, cannot be excluded.
vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 249-255, 1979
Abstract: It is now recognized that relations exist between mechanical factor of blood and occurrence of atheromatous plates. Various phenomena can interfere, such as parietal friction, separated zones and instabilities. In particular, measurement of parietal flow depends on the instruments available and few of them are able to give an accurate evaluation of instantaneous local velocities without perturbing the blood flow. For this purpose, an ultrasonic Doppler method is proposed associating echo graphic and Doppler techniques whereby local velocities and gradient on the vascular wall can be obtained in vivo and in vitro. Specific procedures are established i) to get a…convenient spatial resolution, ii) to provide calibrated values of the longitudinal component of velocities, involving a biangulation method.
vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 257-263, 1979
Abstract: The study described is intended to demonstrate the relation which can exist in the parietal microenvironment between blood flow and metabolic surface phenomena. For this purpose modelisation technique is used. An enzymatic protein (beta galactosidase EC-184.108.40.206) is fixed on the internal surface of a nylon tube, throught which a calibrated flow of substrate (orthonitrophenyl β -D galactoside (ON PG) is generated by a pump. Variations in catalytic activity under influence of flow is monitored by enzymatic kinetic measurement. The influence of wall stresses GM induced by continuous flow of substrate is studied. Distinction should be made between Michaelis behavioural…reaction rate and reaction rate controlled by diffusion; for GM values less than 125 s−1 , the process of substrate transfer to the wall depending on diffusion.
vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 265-276, 1979