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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Experimental investigations of the flow characteristics of blood have been reported only at shear rates analogous to conditions of flow that would be expected to occur in smaller arteries or the microcirculation. If one is to consider the rheological behavior of blood at peak levels of flow under conditions typically found in arteries of moderate size, higher rates of shear must be examined. In this study, it was found that at these higher rates of shear the blood behaves as a Newtonian fluid. This has broad implications in the study of hemorheological models of the cardiovascular system. It permits one…to analyze disturbed flow in regions of high shear by utilization of equations which describe the fluid dynamics of Newtonian fluids.
vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 501-508, 1973
Abstract: Blood viscosity determinations using the Wells–Brookfield cone plate viscometer can be organized as a routine laboratory procedure. Standing, anticoagulant concentration, and centrifugation of the sample as well as the nutritional state of the subject, do not influence the blood viscosity values at the level of accuracy achieved by the instrument.
vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 509-515, 1973
Abstract: A finite deformation solution has been developed for the radial, circumferential and axial stress distributions in an axially stretched hollow cylindrical tube in equilibrium under constant internal and external pressure. These results for longitudinal tethering (i.e. axial stretch) of the tube have been compared with the case of plane strain finite deformation and it has been shown that the plane strain results reduce to the values given in the classical theory of elasticity when the deformations become infinitesimal. It has also been shown that the resultant hoop tension in the vessel wall may take either positive or negative values, depending…upon the pressure and the radius of the tube, and furthermore that the resultant hoop tension is less for the axially stretched tube than for the un stretched tube in the intermediate to large range of circumferential wall stretch. A salient feature of the finite deformation solution is its treatment of strain induced anisotropy of the cylindrical wall. An initially isotropic material exhibits elastic moduli that are equal in all directions but when the material of a cylindrical tube undergoes finite deformation the elastic moduli are no longer equal in all directions if calculated as incremental moduli. The distinction between such strain induced anisotropy of an initially isotropic material and true material anisotropy needs to be incorporated in future studies of vessel walls.
vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 517-525, 1973
Abstract: The plasma cholesterol concentration in a group of seven beagle dogs was increased to ∼1000 mg/100 ml with a high cholesterol diet. Measurements of the whole blood and plasma viscosity were made at various plasma cholesterol concentrations. The viscosity determinations were carried out using a cone and plate micro viscometer operated at 37°C and at shear rates of 11.5. 23, 46, 115 and 230 sec−1 . The whole blood samples were adjusted to a haematocrit of 40 per cent before the viscosity determination. It was found that viscosity of whole blood was dependent on the cholesterol concentration whilst plasma viscosity…was unaffected. The increase in whole blood viscosity as a result of an increase in cholesterol level was more marked at the lower shear rates.
vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 527-531, 1973
Abstract: L’influence des sels d’acides gras saturés et insaturés de C8 à C22 sur l’agrégation des plaquettes humaines est comparée dans le cadre de deux techniques différentes d’investigation: le test classique photométrique et la pression de filtration. Dans le test classique photométrique, les acides gras induisent une courbe de déviation progressive et irréversible, témoin à la fois de l’agrégation des plaquettes et de la conjugaison vraisemblable de l’acide gras avec les protéines plasmatiques. L’existence et l’intensité de l’agrégation plaquettaire sont liées au poids moléculaire de la chaîne d’acides gras considérée et inhibées par la présence de doubles liaisons.…Avec la technique de la pression de filtration de PRP, on trouve une augmentation de celle-ci en fonction du nombre de molécules de carbone de la chaîne utilisée en bonne corrélation pour les acides gras saturés avec le test précédent. La diminution de la pression de filtration provoquée par la présence d’une double liaison, en particulier pour l’érucate, est d’un degré supérieur à l’inhibition du test photométrique. La taille, la cohésion des agrégats pourraient être la cause de cette discordance et le rôle de l’activation ou non activation du facteur XII est suggéré comme un mécanisme possible d’intcrprétation.
vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 553-559, 1973
Abstract: This study deals with blood viscosity factors not usually employed in the biorheological characterization of disease or as prognostic indices, The apparent viscosity of artificial red/white and white thrombi and aggregation of red cells, as defined by the erythrocyte sedimentation rates corrected for plasma viscosity and adjusted to haematocrit of 30 per cent, arc elevated in cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction and renal failure, and in malignant melanoma. The two new potential diagnostic or prognostic parameters studied are: (a) influence of fibrinogen level on the apparent viscosity of artificial thrombi and on the aggregation of red cells; and (b)…influence of ABO blood groups on the correlations obtained for the functions described under (a). It is shown that the effect of fibrinogen varies greatly depending not only on the type of disease but also on the type of ABO blood group. While in the normal states or in artificial systems the levels of fibrinogen arc correlated with the increases in these rheological parameters, there is no correlation in vascular disorders. In all the vascular and malignant disorders there were very significant (P < 0.001) differences between A and O, A and B, and Band O blood groups in the effects of fibrinogen level on these rheological functions.
vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 585-594, 1973
Abstract: Vessels in the microcirculation have been compared to channels in a gel. In this study a method has been developed whereby a geometrically well defined section of a flow system was composed of a cylindrical gel mantic of outer radius R G , surrounding a cylindrical channel of radius R . Both the channel and the mantle were of length L and were contained in a rigid transparent support of inner radius R G . Hence R G and L were fixed (R G = 1.3 or 4.5 mm; L =…40 mm) and the radius R ≃ 0.14 mm could be measured by mounting the whole system on the stage of a microscope fitted with an eye-piece micrometer. The gel was crosslinked polyacrylamide swollen with water. Water also served as the flow medium. It was found that R increased with absolute pressure applied statically to the system under no flow conditions. In flow the channel tended to expand upstream and contract down stream. Flow rate Q through the system and pressure drop ΔP were measured and the radius of the channel was monitored as a function of distance x along its length. At low pressure gradients now rates Q agreed with the theoretically predicted flow rates Q o but dropped below Q o at higher pressure gradients even though allowance was made for changes in R in calculating Q o and flow was shown to be laminar. The extent of the deviation decreased with gel rigidity G ′ and increased with thickness of the gel wall R G − R . The results expressed as Q /Q o could be correlated when plotted as a function of α = ( R G / 2 L G ′ ) Δ P , and corresponded approximately to the function Q / Q o = ( 1 − α ) 4 . The relevance of these results for the microcirculation is discussed.
vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 595-604, 1973