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Global public health significances, health care perception of community, treatments, prevention and control methods of COVID-19

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the most burden respiratory diseases outbreak. Moreover, the public health emergency to fight COVID-19 outbreak was stated by world health organization as global health concern since March, 2020. However, there has been significantly increased morbidity and moratlity of the community in worldwide.The objective of the review was to describe and review the global public health significances and community and health care perception on features, treatments, prevention and control methods of the Outbreak to slow transmission.

METHODS:

In this review, the literatures were searched by following online databases which include medRxiv, pubmed, medline and Google scholar databases. The ‘COVID-19’, ‘2019 novel coronavirus’, ‘2019-nCoV’, ‘novel coronavirus’and ‘Pneumonia’ key search terms were used to search the literatures. Scientific papers published online by Center for Disease Control (CDC) and WHO from 1 January to 6 May, 2020 in English language were included for analysis.

RESULTS:

The result of review indicated that COVID-19 is the serious global public health problem. It more affects immune compromised individuals who are living with chronic diseases, aged and pregnant women. The disease spreads rapidly from one country to countries worldwidely. The 212 countries were highlighted the weakened state of essential public health emergency services. The researchers were addressed lack of communities’ perception including health professionals’ against COVID-19. The

health care settings were analyzed the pandemic nature of the viruses, onset and overall characteristics of disease outbreak. The microbiogists were also used the daily cumulative index of COVID-19. With regards to the treatment, Chloroquine phosphate and herbal medicines showed promising as supportive treatments to slow COVID-19 transmission with isolation and quarantine techniques.

The review indicated that COVID-19 has high global public health significances due to its highest morbidity and mortality rates. Still, there was no any specific and effective vaccine and treatments, moreover, the community including health professionals have low perception against COVID-19, eventhough different prevention and control methods have conducted. Thus, awareness creation should be done beside further applied research to get effective vaccine and treatments.

Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019, perception, prevention and control, public health significances, treatments

1.Introduction

The Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the most burden respiratory diseases outbreak. It can affect any age sex, groups and races, however, it severly affects affects immune compromised individuals who are living with chronic diseases, aged and pregnant women The disease spreads rapidly from one country to countries across the world. Hence, the public health emergency to fight COVID-19 outbreak was stated by world health organization as global health concern since March [1].

An emerging novel pathogen which significantly threatening the life of global community since 1 January, 2020. However, its dynamicity is still unknown, but there is speculation that it also has an animal origin [1, 2]. As a result; it poses public health, economic, psychological resilience and social crisis of all countries.

Fever, dry cough, shortness of breath (dyspnea) and tiredness are found to be the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. It’s incubation period occurs within 2–14 days after exposure, however, asmptomatic patients that couldn’t show clinical signs were found in Wuhan, China [3]. Concerning about the diagnosis of COVID-19 is critically vital however, there is no sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic methods to detect this virus. But, currently, reverse-transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence antigen detection assays are used to test nasopharyngeal samples [1, 2].

Several researchers of different countries are struggling to get specific and effective vaccine and treatment of COVID-19. For example, the first phase clinical trial was applied on 45 healthy adult volunteers in which two shots, and 28 days apart in USA [6, 7]. Cleaning of hands with soap and water for 20 seconds; use of surface disinfectants with alcohol and sanitizer; social/physical distancing; isolation/staying home; quartine; careful disposal of infected materials and nasal secretions are most effective prevention and control methods of the disease [6]. The present review was aimed to describe and review the global public health significances, community and health care perception, treatments, prevention and control methods of COVID-19 Outbreak.

2.Methods

In this review, the literatures were searched by following online databases which include MedRxiv, Pubmed, MEDLINE and Google scholar databases. The ‘COVID-19’, ‘2019 Novel coronavirus’, ‘2019-nCoV’, ‘Novel coronavirus’and ‘Pneumonia’ key search terms were used to search the literatures. Scientific papers published online by Center for Disease Control (CDC) and World Health Organization from 01 January to 06 May, 2020 in English language were included in this analysis.

2.1Data collection and analysis

The articles were screened independently by two reviewers for eligibility. The third reviewer was consulted to resolve disagreements. The reviewers has independently reviewed the titles, authors, published year and abstracts against eligibility criteria.

Table 1

Public health significances of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

S.No̱Public health significances from relevant literatureAuthors and published year
  1COVID-19 has affected elder people and it may be experiencing further distress related to psychiatric conditions.Lima et al. [9]
  2Most of the time, the national readiness capacities are critically important to understand the way how to identify and facilitate slow COVID-19 transmission using a local risk assessment.Kandel et al. [6]
  3There was a lack of adequate knowledge among health professionals towards COVID-19 and their overall pathological characteristics.Wang et al. [9]
  4The Number of Patients and front-line health workers have been prone to COVID-19.Lima et al. [7]
  5The transmission of the Novel 2019 Coronaviruses (COVID-19) pandemic diseases outbreak is rapidly from one country to country.Ren et al. [8]
  6The morbidity and mortality are very high related to COVID-19.Lai et al. [23]
  7The estimated rate of case fatality is icreased from 2 to 3%.Singhal [10]
  8The prevalence of comorbidities in the Novel 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19)pandemic diseases outbreak in Wuhan has increased.Yang et al. [11]
  9Quarantine is the most important alternative solution for slow COVIDF-19 transmission across the world, For example, during Quarantine of a Cruise Shi, Yokohama, Japan, the Initial Investigation of Transmission of COVID-19 was seen among Crew Members on February, 2020.Kensaku et al. [14]
10Exceptionally, the clinical features of COVID-19 panademic diseases outbreak related with pneumonia were easy transmitted to other pneumonias (changed).Kensaku et al. [14]
11Another way of prevention and control methods of the Novel 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) is Isolation. It helps to separation suspected or confiremed cases; for instance, the first coronavirus case was seen with pneumonic cases of male patient in Saudi Arabia.Zaki et al. [13]
12Most of the researchers have assessed the epidemiological and clinical nature of the COVID-19. For example, one of the research finding was showed that at the first time about 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia was confirmed in Wuhan, China.Chen et al. [15]
13Currently, sever pneumonia is most commonly seen among 10 neonates of born to mothers with 2019- nCoV using a clinical analysis.Zhu et al. [16]
14Infected pneumonia are early transmission dynamics of 2019 coronavirus disease in world countries.Li et al. [30]
15Most of the pregnant women are susceptible to COVID-19 and are more likely to have complications and even progress to severe illness.Shaoshuai et al. [17]
16There are variation among the three consequative coronavirus diseases; therefore, the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens.Wenjie [21]
17Evidence showed that the clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus were due to infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China.Wang et al. [22]
18The majority of COVID-19 transmission from person-to-person.Jasper et al. [20]
19The clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to sever acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus is caused the current Novel 2019 Corona virus (2019-nCoV infection). Moreover, it was associated with Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and high mortality.Chaolin et al. 

3.Results

The present systematic review was assesses about the public health significances from the key relevant literatures, various perceptions of COVID-19, treatments and prevention and control methods to slow its transmission. The elder person whose age is > 65 years old and any higher aged group of population have been affected with psychiatric situation which directly related with distress accompanied with the COVID-19 disease outbreak (Table 1). Moreover, regarding to the clinical nature of severe stage of COVID-19 as such pneumonia and its transmission to other pneumonias are increasing from time to time in various world nation. Many of those infected patients and front line health workers are highly prone to the infections [7].

The finding also indicated that virus spread rapidly from one country to many countries around the world [10]; therefore, the national readiness capacities are required to slow COVID-19 transmission using the vital way of local risk assessment in order to understand how the government, managers, health care providers, prevention and control awareness committees, policy makers, community leaders, all other stakeholders including and community in large are contributed to slow transmission of the virus in various countries in worldwide. Hence, this support may help to community life save action [6, 9]. Evidence showed that most of the health professionals have no adequate awareness concerning its pathological feature of COVID-19 [9].

The prevalence of COVID-19 in Wuhan, Hubei city, China was very high, and the case fatality rate was also estimated to range 2 to 3% [10, 11]. Even though the virus was observed as a minor from the perspectives of mortality or burden of disease, the disease outbreak reminded the world of the shared vulnerability as a pandemic infection. For instance, the clinical characterstics of 138 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 confirmed cases that had been infected with pneumonia [12]. It is also highlighted the weakened state of essential public health emergency services, not only Wuhan, China, but also a total of 212 countries in worldwide.

The isolation of COVID-19 from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia was observed since 2020 [13]. Similarly, there was initially investigated the transmission of COVID-19 among the crew members in Japan on February [14]. The epidemiological and clinical nature of 99 cases of pneumonia due to COVID-19 in Wuhan city, China recorded as epidemic disease [15]. Specifically, the epidemiological and clinical analysis of about 10 neonates born to mothers with the disease indicated severe pneumonia [16]. The research finding suggested that the pregnant women are susceptible to COVID-19 and are more likely to have complications and even progress to severe illness of disease outbreak [17]. It is the way of early transmission dynamics of this disease infected pneumonia [18]. Meanwhile, most of the countries has been followed the quarantine roles as one of the alternative critically important prevention and control methods of COVID-19 disease outbreak.

Table 2

Perspection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

S.No̱Communities’ perspection of coronavirus disease 2019Authors and published year
1The three most important public health problems as such SARS, MERS and COVID-19 were observed in the autopsies.Wang et al. [9]
2Almost all world counyries are using an analysed data at the regional level using six geographical WHO regions.Kandel et al. [6]
3The causative agents and emotional impact of COVID-19 was identified using situational framework.Lima et al. [7]
4Many of the research findings revealed that confirm diagnosis of COVID-19 must be supported by epidemic history, diseases onset charcterstics, serological and pathogenic microorganisms test.Rent et al. [8]
5One of the most important communities’ perspection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 is using daily cumulative index (DCI).Lai et al. [23]
6Special molecular tests was used to demonstration of the Corona virus (COVID-19) in respiratory secreations.Singhal [10]
7The computerized tomoghraphic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no sysmptoms or mild diseases.Singhal [10]
8Common laboratory findings include normal/low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP).Singhal 

Most of the reviewed studies results showed Coronavirus infection caused groups of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and was associated with Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and high morbidity and mortality rates [19]. Meanwhile, the route of transmission is person-to-person [20]. Regarding to the basic revealing method of COVID-19, the world health institution have used various types of clinical specimen’s to identify the cause of the disease [21].

This study result showed in Table 2, there are different perception and sensation among the communities and health care provider against COVID-19. Some of the researchers were addressed the variation of pathological characterstics of COVID-19 and they have reported on the effect of autopsies of the aforemented previous SARS, MERS and COVID-19. The pathologic nature of those three consecutive Coronavirus outbreak has been observed through various method of investigation and isolation system [22].

Table 3

Treatment trial of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

S.No̱Treatments of coronavirus disease 2019Authors and published year
1From the beginning of the first confirmed COVID-19 pandemic Disease outbreak, Kaletra and traditional Chinese medicine has played an important role in the treatment of the viral pneumonia.Wan et al. [24]
2In order to allow the day to day operational activities at various hospitals, most of the facilities were used blood units that provided directly from the blood center of non-affected areas of the community tokeep an inventory stable.Pagano et al. [25]
3The essential supportive therapies are practiced for COVID-19; however, they are not effectively manged the causative agent for case.Singhal [10]
4The characterstics of any antiviral agents is yet be established.Singhal [10]
5COVID-19 associated pneumonia has treated with Chloroquine phosphate because it is a drug which has shown apparent efficacy in treatment.Gao [27]
6Now a day, scientists are trying to discover various modern and traditional drugs to treat coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic disease outbreak.Dong [28]
7Intitialy, Antiviral treatment of COVID-19 are used as supportive theraphy.Şimşek Yavuz [29]
8Many researchers has been conducted various clinical, observational and management of COVID-19 patients.Li [30]
9The advocacy for prospective clinical trials to test the post-exposure potential of hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 is implemented and used appropriately.Picot et al. [31]
10Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine are mostly used to Prevention and treatment of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Africa.Abena et al. 

Table 4

Prevention and control method of COVID-19

S.No̱Prevention and control methodsAuthors and published year
1Restricting travel.Lai et al. [23]
2Controlling the distribution of Masks.
3Extensive investigation of COVID-19 spread.
4Giving valuable information and educate people.
5Frequently clean hands by using alchol-based hand rub or soap and water.World Health Organization [1]
6When coughing and sneezing cover mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue throw tissue away immediately and wash hand.
7Avoid close contact with any one that has fever and coughing.
8Quarantine with avoid stress, engaging health activities, regular exercise and sleep per day, eat healthy food, and keep things inperspective.World Health Organization [1]
9Home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses.Singhal [10]
10Strict infection control measure at hospitals that include contact and droplet precuations.Singhal 

The six geographical WHO regions have been employed various analytical data analysis as their regional contexts. This may be supported to identify the regional problem related with COVID-19 [6, 22]. Most of the research findings, for example, Lima and his colleagues [7] had found that many of high, low and middle income countries has been identified the etiology and psychological factors, more of the emotional impacts, of COVID-19 using a situational framework [7, 22]. In order to confirm the COVID-19 cases, most of the health care settings were analyzed the epidemic nature of the viruses, onset and overall characterstics of disease outbreak including serology and pathogenic microbes test result to identify types of virus which cause the COVID-19 outbreak [8]. In other words, some of the laboratory experts were used the daily cumulative index of COVID-19 [23]. Moreover, special molecular tests were used to demonstrate the SARS-nCoV-2 which caused COVID-19 outbreak in the respiratory secretions accompanied with the computerized tomographic chest scan. As a result, there was abnormal result of the patient whose confirmed COVID-19 as well as those with no symptoms or mild diseases as such fever, coughing, sneezing and running nose. Hence, most of the laboratory centers have been followed various types of the investigation and evaluation methods to identify the causative agents for COVID-19 then after their active diagnostic evaluation like common laboratory test result might be indicated that the level of the white blood cells must be normal, abnormal or low and other C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated [10, 23].

Table 3 indicated the treatment of COVID-19 in which was no any specific vaccine and treatment for COVID-19 outbreak. However, most of the countries have used various existing supportive treatments to slow COVID-19 transmission from person to person with isolation and quarantine techniques. For example, Kaletra and traditional Chinese medicine has been played a key role in the treatment of the viral pneumonia as essential supportive therapies [10] and minimized viral load [24]. Meanwhile, blood transfusion using normal volume of blood units was provided from blood center of non-affected areas of the community to keep inventory stable and allow for routine hospital operations [25]. In other words, the main roles of antiviral drugs are still under establishment in various world nations [10].

The result also shown that chloroquine phosphate is one of the most important types of supportive treatment and it is highly apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 outbreak associated with mild and severe pneumonia [26, 27]. However, some of the scientists have being to discover drugs to manage Coronavirus infection [28]. Even though there was no specific treatment for COVID-19, almost all the countries have been used Antiviral treatment of COVID-19 in order to decrease morbidity and mortality rates in the country’s [29].

Currently, the main scientific surveillance and administration of supportive drugs for COVID-19 patients are helped to protect and assessed using a prospective methodical judgments to investigate its complication of hydroxychloroquine [30, 31]. Mostly, drugs like chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were used for the prevention and control of COVID-19 transmission and effectively treated the novel COVID-19 outbreak in Africa region [32].

In result in Table 4 showed that the slow COVID-19 transmissions are efficiently and effectively implemented using various method of prevention and control of the cases. There are various methods of prevention and control for COVID-19 to slow transmission as such community and health care awareness, restriction of movement from place to place, nearby journey, and any travel [23], examination of a widely spread of COVID-19, increase distribution of safety materials like face mask, and gloves for all communities and urgent call for physicians. Meanwhile, one of the most important and easiest way of decreasing Coronavirus cross contamination are frequently wash hands by using soap and water including sanitizers [1]. Furthermore, both quarantine and severe contagion diseases control technique at health settings that include contact and droplet protections as well as avoiding the high degree of stress and emotional act, and adequate sleep, balanced diet but, avoid restricted food related with COVID-19 and related complication [1, 10].

4.Discussion

This study result showed that older age groups are highly vulnerable to COVID-19 followed by children’s and other age groups. This indicated that the number of morbidity and mortality are various depending on age and country to country. It supported by European Centre for Diseases prevention and control report [34] found that many of hospitalized COVID-19 confirmed patients having severe clinical symptoms were accounts 15%; however, the total number of death occurred in 12%, for example, the numbers of deaths in Germany, Italy and Spain are rapidly increased. Meanwhile, there is increasing the case fatality among elder persons [33]. Similar to this study, the elder age groups are dying greater than all age group in each world nation; However there was a very large death and age variation from country to country [23, 38, 39]. This indicated that it offers a way to analyses the current disease outbreak and community health gaps between countries in the main working age groups. The probabilities of dying in adulthoods are greater than other age groups in almost all countries but, the death rate variation related to age between countries is very large.

This review revealed that lack of global policy, strategic plan, and the national readiness to slow COVID-19 transmission. Similarly, a study was conducted in United State of America by [36] decribesd that the initial public health emergtency response and clinical guidance was being applied in anticipation of further COVID-19 cases in the country. However, it couldnot efficiently and effectively prevent the ultimate introducing of continuing, widespread transmission of the COVID-19, thecountry is being implemented WHO five stage strategies to slow the spread of mild and sever sysmptoms of the cases [36]. The fundamental questions are raising from many of the communities regarding to the necessities of taking the preventive and control actions for COVID-19 outbreak is too high. Supported by [37] found that the challenges of COVID-19 and its impact on the community are continued to grow. Moreover, mant of thye world nations are facing unprecxedented problem with case [37]. Evidence showed that the public health emergency measures are a routine preventive actions of the Novel 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic diseases outbreak which included that waiting at home once you feel sick, covering mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue when coughing or sneezing, dispose of used tissue immediately, washing hands often with soap and water and cleaning frequently touched surfaces and objects [38].

The study results showed that still there have inadequate awareness among communities and health care providers against fighting COVID-19. However, health care providers are one of the role plays to provide key relevant information about the distribution of COVID-19 confirmed cases, death and the overall recovery and/or discharged from the temporary management centers, hospitals and waiting areas, and how COVID-19 transmission is slowed from person to person and from country to country. It indicated that it is the way of to avoid the risk among the communities. The study was conducted in Kenya by [39] suggested that there was a health care provider workforce has been intensified in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia months ago. Similarly the National Nurses United members in United State report was indicated that the one-third had sufficient inventory of personal protective equipment (PPE) in various healthcare organizations for responding to the Novel 2019 Corona Viruses (COVID-19) pandemic diseases Outbreak. For example, in similar to the current review, there is lack of awareness among many of the health care providers in some parts of Hospitals in France and Italy. Evidence suggested that still many of health care providers have run out of masks, forcing doctors to examine and treat confirmed COVID-19 pandemic Diseases outbreak patients without adequate protection [39].

This study finding found that the prevalence of COVID-19 is very high and there is slightly increasing the case fatality of the cases in China as well as all other countries. Moreover, the vulnerability of COVID-19 has been changed from epidemic to pandemic level of disease outbreak and weakened application of the prevention and control methods but also public health emergency to slow COVID-19. The isolation of a COVID-19 from a community with pneumonia was helped to identify the COVID-19 confirmed case and how the community applies the efficient and effective quarantine to slow COVID-19 transmission from person to person. Most of the time, the pregnant women are highly vulnerable to COVID-19 and are more likely to have mild to severe complications and even progress to severe illness of disease outbreak such as COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2.

This study finding showed that there was high variation of pathological characterstics among SARS, MERS and COVID-19 diseases outbreak. Especially, COVID-19 has been killed many people with mild and severe symptoms if they cannot assign and urgent contact with health care providers during onset of the cases. Moreover, there was some variation on community and health care providers’ perception to slow COVID-19 transmission.

This study result showed that most of developed and developing countries have been identified the impact of COVID-19. For example, emotional impact was critically aggravated the severity of COVID-19 across all countries. As a result, there was increasing etiology and psychological factors related to COVID-19 diseases outbreak in the communities. Even though the health care settings were strongly assessed the epidemic characterstics of COVID-19 including serology and pathogenic microbes test there was abnormal result of the patient confirmed COVID-19 cases as well as those with no symptoms or mild diseases as such fever, coughing, sneezing and running nose.

This study results revealed that there is a lack of direct therapeutic management as such Anti SARS-CoV-2. Nonetheless, most of the nation had been started some of the supportive drugs like HIV/AIDS treatment as such Anti Retero Viral (ART) and chloroquine as antimalarial drugs to a management COVID-19 outbreak associated with pneumonia, blood transfusion, including some of the countries, like China, used essential supportive therapies as such Kaletra and traditional Chinese medicine to treat many of viral caused pneumonia. In similar, a study was conducted in Italy by [40] found that most of the drugs against COVID-19 has not discovered by various scientists in world nations, but also they are in immature stages; however, the combination of anti-viral drugs and supportive care has been used to slow COVID-19 [40].

5.Conclusions

The risk of COVID-19 outbreak was very high in global countries. There morbidity and mortality rates are increased in more than 200 countries. Therefore, maximum risk of COVID-19 outbreak limits, public health emergency targets and health policy instruments for prevention and control of this disease is often used to slow its transmission. Especially, the country’s government should be implemented a serious health policies to prevent and control COVID-19, the high degree of attention on prevention and control actions should be needed in the world. It is important to ensure that the intended protection and prevention of the disease outbreak are achieved and that any further protection and control methods are taken without delay. As a result, the research team is recommended that continuous surveillance, investigation, human exposure assessment, WHO standard guideline and rules and regulation up on the prevention and control methods of the COVID-19. The result was identified the seriousness of COVID-19 related with pregnant mothers, infants and way how to transmit from person to person. Therefore, the expansion of the public health emergency for prevention and control of COVID-19 and emergency diseases outbreak care system and the provision of new emergency medical services and public health emergency preparedness naturally lead to current problems about the quality of the health care delivery systems provided and the ability of the public health emergency to handle a larger the WHO standard COVID-19 prevention and control methods in each country. Therefore, awareness creation of the community; and further applied research on effective vaccine and treatment should be done. Morover, epidemiological survey should be implemented to manage risk of COVID-19 outbreak and other endemic, epidemic, pandemic and sporadic diseases outbreaks in various countries in continents.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Salale University and all individuals who render help during the review are also highly acknowledged.

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