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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Better student understanding of the dynamic trends in graduate employment requires the development of the author’s description of this multidisciplinary social problem. OBJECTIVE: This educational paper is focused on an author-proposed engineering-friendly description of oscillatory dynamics in the employment market for university graduates. METHODS: This didactical paper widely uses computational methods of oscillations theory, theory of electrical and hydraulic circuits as well as concepts of physical analogies and similarity. RESULTS: The generalized character of the employment-related oscillations in the studied social system of employees was didactically enhanced through the original introduction of two…technical analogies with similar oscillations in the electrical system of an LC-field-effect transistor oscillator and the mechanical system of a hydraulic ram pump. CONCLUSIONS: The author-proposed triple physics-and-engineering analogy for the periodic oscillations in the socio-economic problem in graduate employment provides a broadening of the cross-disciplinary ideas of engineering students about oscillatory dynamics in the social, electrical and hydraulics systems. It was found in the case of the Donbass State Engineering Academy (Kramatorsk, Ukraine), that this original author’s approach provides simultaneous enhancement of the cross-disciplinary undergraduate engineering curriculum in the courses of economics, management, higher education pedagogy, physics, hydraulics and electrical engineering.
Keywords: Engineering education, graduate employment, oscillations in the labor
market, electrical analogy, hydraulics analogy
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive tasks influence gait by reducing balancing abilities. Diverse studies to date have examined dual-tasking and gait. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the influences of smart phone use while walking on lower limb joint angle and dynamic balancing ability. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects were voluntarily recruited from the university population. All subjects were required to perform the tasks under three conditions: not using a smart phone, having a conversation by phone, and playing a smart phone game. Lower limb joint angle and dynamic balance ability related to smart phone use during gait were measured.…Motion analysis was used to measure lower limb joint angle changes during gait, while balance measuring equipment was used to measure the dynamic balancing ability. RESULTS: In the stability limit test to measure the changes in dynamic balancing abilities, significant differences were found among the different smart phone use conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Smart phone use during movements that are required for balance requires special attention, and this study provides important basic data for follow-up studies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Individuals with hearing loss experience unique barriers to employment frequently documented in the areas of communication and education. The purpose of this article is to contribute to extend this inquiry to the uniqueness of workplace discrimination involving persons with hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated differences in allegations of workplace discrimination filed by persons with hearing loss (“Hearing”) compared to those filed by persons with other physical or neurological disabilities (General Disability, or “GENDIS”) before and after the enactment of the 2008 Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (2008 Amendments). METHODS: Using secondary data collected…from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System, we employ simple measures of proportion and odds ratios to describe differences between allegations derived from GENDIS and Hearing loss populations. These are population statistics, and not samples, of all allegations of discrimination reported to the EEOC through 2016. The comparisons involve Characteristics of the Charging Parties, Issues or discriminatory behaviors alleged, and closure statuses or Merit Rate of the EEOC’s investigations – both before and after the 2008 Amendments. RESULTS: Following the 2008 Amendments, Charging Parties changed dramatically on age and gender status. Reasonable Accommodation, Hiring, Harassment, and employment Terms and Conditions showed unique features between groups and/or time periods. The “veracity” (confirmed truthfulness or merit) of the EEOC allegation (or Merit) rate also changed following the Amendments: higher for GENDIS; lower for Hearing. CONCLUSIONS: Possible rationale for these findings are offered, and new research questions are raised. Finally, implications for the cross-disability movement are presented.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Risk factors for motorcycle injuries are associated with rider-related factors and crash-related factors. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of age and violations on occupational accidents among motorcyclists performing food delivery. METHODS: This study analyzed 1,317 injured couriers regarding rider-related factors and crash-related factors according to rider’s age or violations. RESULTS: Among injured riders, 67.4% were temporary workers, 76.1% worked in small companies with <5 employees, 58.7% in the nighttime, and 51.5% had a work experience of <1 month. However, among the injured teens, 93.5% were temporary workers, 87.0% in companies with <5…employees, 79.5% in nighttime, and 61.4% with work experience of <1 month. The proportion of novice with <1 month, of the temporary worker, of ‘head/face/neck’ injury, or of the ‘concussion/hemorrhage’ type of injury all decreased with age. However, the proportion of ‘fracture,’ ‘rider alone,’ or ‘death or disability’ accidents increased with age. Furthermore, the violation rate was high in teens (17.4%), at night (15.4%), or in type of ‘crash with a car’ (26.2%). The violation rate decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: The results are expected to be useful for injury prevention policies and guidelines in the food delivery industries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: According to a survey of the working population of women by industry, service industries accounted for the majority. OBJECTIVE: The effects of female worker’s salary and self-rated health on safety education and compliance in three sectors of the service industry are reported. METHODS: A sample of 700 women service workers were surveyed; their age, work experience, salary, self-rated health, safety educational participation, and compliance were recorded. RESULTS: The salary of female service workers was directly related to safety educational participation and compliance, as well as the health levels they reported. CONCLUSIONS:…The results suggest that an increase in the self-rated health and salary of female workers can contribute to enhancing safety educational participation and compliance. Development of educational programs in prevention and safety compliance is expected to contribute to the prevention of industrial accidents in the service sector.
Keywords: Female service worker, safety education, safety compliance, health, salary
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The work of nurses and correctional officers alike has long been pointed at as among the most stressful in the world. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to evaluate the prevalence and level of occupational burnout among 214 hospital nurses and 201 correctional officers from Bulgaria. One of the focuses was to examine whether gender roles or occupational roles were more related to burnout. METHODS: The current work used a descriptive cross-sectional inter-occupational comparative survey design. The participation was voluntary, individually and anonymously without any financial compensation. The only qualification in the sample selection was that…the employee had direct contact with patients and inmates respectively. A translated MBI-Bulgarian version was used to measure burnout. Data were entered into SPSS17.0 to carry out data analysis. RESULTS: The level of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment of nurses were significantly higher than that of correctional officers. Mean depersonalization score of correctional officers was significantly higher than that of nurses. Correctional officers demonstrated a higher prevalence of burnout syndrome compared with nurses. To examine whether gender is associated with burnout, Mann-Whitney U test was utilized to assess gender differences of correctional officers. Our results suggest that being male or female is not a critical determinant of burnout. CONCLUSION: Correctional officers were found to have a higher prevalence of burnout syndrome compared with nurses.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Deep knee bending has been reported as an occupational hazard to workers who have to adopt such postures. High knee joint moments have been associated with knee osteoarthritis initiation and progression. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare four high knee flexion postures (dorsiflexed and plantarflexed kneeling, and flat-foot and heels-up squatting) to determine which one results in lower knee joint flexion and ab/adduction moments. METHODS: Forty-three participants performed five trials of each posture. Peak (for descent/ascent) and mean (for the static hold) external knee flexion and ab/adduction moments were analyzed for each posture using 2-way…ANOVAs and post-hoc pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: It was observed that the flat-foot squat resulted in significantly lower knee flexion moment compared to the other three postures (4.63±0.99 % BW·H during the static phase, and 5.83±1.24 % BW·H and 5.94±1.24 % BW·H during descent and ascent phases, respectively). During ascent phase, significant differences was indicated in peak adduction moments for the flat-foot squat in comparison to both styles of kneeling. CONCLUSIONS: When high knee flexion is required but posture is not dictated, flat-foot squat will reduce exposures to high knee moments.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Iran has a variety of climates which support agriculture in different seasons. Hence, a significant proportion of people, especially in rural areas, are engaged in farming. Agriculture is considered one of the most insecure job sectors in developing and developed countries. OBJECTIVE: Since there is no comprehensive study on safety, health, and ergonomics issues in Iran’s agriculture, it is necessary to use checkpoints to assess occupational safety, health, and ergonomics issues in Iran’s agriculture. METHODS: In this study, 430 villages from seven provinces of Iran were selected to study safety, health, and ergonomics in agriculture…using ergonomic checkpoints. The checkpoints were collected with the help of rural health centers. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that the villages of Kurdistan Province had the best safety, health, and working conditions (66.12%); and Khuzestan province villages had the worst safety, health, and working conditions (38.16%). Among the ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture, the control of hazardous chemicals (CHC) index with 71.41% and work organization and work schedule (WOWS) index with 35.25% represented the best and worst ergonomic conditions of the study villages, respectively. Furthermore, the general index of ergonomics in agriculture for the study villages was 53.64%. Therefore, Khuzestan Province and the WOWS index top the priorities for corrective actions to improve the safety, health and working conditions in agriculture. CONCLUSIONS: The ergonomics indices in Iranian agriculture are important, and should be prioritized for corrective actions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is a need for a short, self-rated, validated and reliable instrument for individual work performance suitable for generic use in the Swedish work and organizational context. The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), comprising originally 47 items, was initially developed in the Netherlands, based on a four-dimensional conceptual framework, in which individual work performance consisted of task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. During the development process, IWPQ was shortened to 18 items with three scales formally labeled as Task performance, Contextual performance, and Counterproductive work behavior (CWB), capturing three work performance types. The current…version of the IWPQ, consisting of 18 items and three scales, was then translated as well as cross-culturally adapted to American-English and Indonesian contexts. OBJECTIVES: To translate and adapt the current IWPQ version, consisting of 18 items, from the Dutch to the Swedish context, to assess its content validity through cognitive interviews, to apply it to a pilot group to present descriptive statistics, to calculate the questionnaire’s internal consistency, as well as to clarify whether the translated items capture three or four performance types. METHODS: The Dutch version of the IWPQ, consisting of 18 items, was translated into Swedish. A six-stage translation and adaptation process was used: forward translation, synthesis, back translation, harmonization, cognitive interviews, revision, and sampling and analyses of pilot data for 206 managers (149 women) from five Swedish municipalities. RESULTS: IWPQ instructions, wording of a few items and one response form were slightly modified. The pilot testing showed Cronbach’s alphas similar to the Dutch version of the IWPQ, ranging between 0.73 and 0.82, good mean-inter-item correlations (all above 0.36). In deciding how many factors to retain, we employed both parallel analysis (PA), and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP) test. The number of factors to retain was, as indicated by PA, four, and by MAP, three or four. Exploratory factor analysis (principal axis factoring) revealed clearly separate factors, corresponding to four, rather than three, performance types. A new factor, roughly representing adaptive performance, comprised in the original, longer version of the IWPQ, emerged. CONCLUSIONS: The Swedish version of the IWPQ was successfully translated and adapted in a pilot group of managers. Before it is used, it should be validated in a larger group of managers and in more heterogeneous groups of both white- and blue-collar workers.
Keywords: Task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, counterproductive work behavior, parallel analysis, MAP test, Swedish version of the IWPQ