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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The present study focuses on perpetrators of workplace incivility. OBJECTIVE: We set to answer two questions: 1) why the perpetrator instigates uncivil behaviors in the workplace, and 2) what are the consequences of workplace incivility on the perpetrator him/herself. METHODS: We examined the perpetrator burnout outcome of instigated incivility and infected emotional contagion as predictor of one’s uncivil behaviors towards others and tested the cross-country structural invariance of the hypothesized nomological network on data from the U.S. and Italy. RESULTS: Data from employees in the U.S. (N = 350) and Italy (N = 273) suggest…that contagion of joy infected into others and anger infected into others were related to instigated incivility, which, in turn, was positively related to emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Our results were structurally invariant across the two countries. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to the victims of incivility, the perpetrator of workplace incivility also suffers from heightened burnout. As such, an employee experiencing and infecting into other employees his/her own negative/positive emotions increases/decreases his/her own tendency to initiate rude behaviors toward others. Overall, our findings shed light on predictors and consequences of workplace instigated incivility. We hope our research can serve as a springboard to the understanding and prevention of incivility initiated by employees.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Young employees have often poorer occupational safety and health (OSH) skills and knowledge than older employees. Efforts should be made at different educational levels to strengthen young employees’ OSH skills and knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To analyze OSH perceptions and attitudes among university students and to examine OSH professionals’ views on OSH teaching. METHODS: This explorative study employs an iterative multi-method approach, including a paired comparison questionnaire for university students (N = 104) and OSH professionals (N = 40), an OSH questionnaire for university students (N = 130) and a Delphi survey for OSH professionals (N = 26). RESULTS: OSH perceptions and attitudes…were found to vary widely among the students and some expressed somewhat stereotypical views about OSH. The results confirm the need to improve OSH education. To that end, the study reports concrete practical ideas from OSH professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The findings confirm the need to augment both the quality and quantity of OSH teaching at university level. Ideas are presented for future OSH teaching, along with recommendations for future studies.
Keywords: OSH perceptions, attitudes, university students, working life, young employees
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dance teachers (DTs) give lessons on various professional and amateur genres. Up to the present, little has been known on health-related behavior regarding the consumption of substances such as inhalant and synthetic substances, cocaine, cannabis/marijuana (c/m), anabolic steroids and naturally occurring hallucinogens in dance teachers. RELEVANCE: To analyze the consumption of these substances as well as to determine influencing variables due to their role model function (educational level, prevalence of injuries, BMI and income). METHODS: N = 236 (m: n = 53, f: n = 183) professional DTs participated in the single cross-sectional cohort study. RESULTS: The…majority of DTs had a single or occasional use of the tested substances. This coincides with the results of the general population. C/m was the most frequently consumed substance with a prevalence of up to 40.1% (m). Only a few significant gender-specific differences were observed. There were weak gender-specific correlations between the consumption of substances and educational level (f) and income (m and f) or injuries (f). CONCLUSION: Due to the specific occupational stress DTs are exposed to, a use of substances would be conceivable. However, apart from cannabis/marijuana (c/m), the consumption of psychoactive substances in DTs seems to be negligible. However, attention should be paid to the significant proportion of dance teachers having tried out substances.
Keywords: Physical education teacher, psychoactive substances, gender specific differences, prevention
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Stumbles are common accidents that can result in falls and serious injuries, particularly in the workplace where back and forth movements are involved and in offices where high heels are imperative. Currently, the characteristics of plantar pressure during a stumble and the differences between stumbling and a normal gait remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This paper is aimed at providing insights into the feasibility of the data mining technique for interventions in stumble-related occupational safety issues. METHODS: The characteristics of plantar pressure distribution during stumbling and normal gait were analyzed by using the power spectrum density (PSD)…and the Support Vector Machine (SVM). The PSD, a novel pattern recognition feature, was used to mathematically describe the image signal. The SVM, a powerful data mining technique, was used as the classifier to recognize a stumble. Dynamic plantar pressures were measured from twelve healthy participants as they walked. RESULTS: The plantar pressures of the stumbling gaits had significantly different patterns compared to the normal ones, from either a qualitative or quantitative perspective. The mean recognition accuracy of the proposed method reached 96.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study helps better understand stumbles and provides a theoretical basis for stumble-related occupational injuries. In addition, the stumble is the precursor of a fall and the research on stumble recognition would be of value to predict and provide warnings of falls and to design anti-fall devices for potential victims.
Keywords: Gait recognition, SVM, power spectrum density, artificial intelligence
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Musicians are at risk of developing playing-related injuries/musculoskeletal problems - to the extent that several injury-prevention strategies have been employed by them. In order to ensure compliance and improve implementation strategies, this study explores the opinions of musicians and music tutors on the barriers and facilitators in implementing an injury prevention program for string players, and the perceptions of the first mentioned as to the practicality of such an exercise-based injury prevention program. METHOD: This study employed a qualitative method (focus group discussion) to explore the opinions of musicians on exercise-based injury-prevention programs for string players and…their implementation strategies. Content thematic analysis was used to analyze and interpret the data. RESULTS: Two music schools, with 11 musicians, participated in the study. The mean age and the mean years of experience of the participants were 28.2±6 years and 12.4±3.8 years respectively. The results of this study showed willingness in the musicians to adopt an exercise-based injury prevention program. However, the major challenge proved to be the time constraint of including an exercise program in the participants’ normal practice and teaching routines. CONCLUSION: There is a willingness to explore possible exercise-based intervention programs to mitigate or prevent instrument-playing-related health problems. However, time constraints proved to be the major barrier to implementation. It was further concluded that consideration should be given to the duration of the intervention program and the mode to adopt in the implementation of the exercise program.
Keywords: Musician, injury prevention, time constraints
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Social Security Administration has a thorough disability claims process, though one goal is to process claims more efficiently. This pilot described the creation and trial of a web-based tool to assist this process. OBJECTIVE: To empirically link the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model to the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) with a self-reported activity measure (physical domain). METHODS: ICF Activity domains and item difficulty calibrations were obtained from a self-reported ICF-Activity Measure. Three work/disability experts matched measurement constructs, job names, and item difficulties with job demands. Item difficulties were linked for…“Positioning and Transfer” with O*NET data values of “Stamina”; “Trunk Strength”, and “Walking and Moving” with O*NET data values of “Stamina.” The system was then pilot tested with 14 adults with more than one activity challenges. RESULTS: An average total of 613 jobs were generated per participant and each job was categorized into one of 16 job clusters. Person ability measures and constructs were significant predictors for numbers of job (R2 = 0.92, p < 0.05). Participants demonstrated moderate satisfaction with program usability, and reported capability in performing jobs. CONCLUSIONS: The system provides a feasible means to assist disability examiners and claimants in identifying relevant job abilities and options.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often make highly personal decisions about whether or not to disclose their HIV status in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine current practices that support people living with HIV to make workplace disclosure decisions and to understand factors that affect disclosure decision-making. METHODS: Ninety-four people who provide health, social and peer-based services responded to an on-line survey about their experiences supporting workplace disclosure decisions of employees living with HIV. RESULTS: Respondents identified a range of strategies to support workplace disclosure decision-making. One-third of respondents were…only a little or not confident in their abilities to support people in making disclosure decisions and 32% expressed little or no confidence in the resources available. Respondents working at HIV-specific organizations, as compared to respondents not working at those organizations, were more confident supporting people with disclosure decisions and in available resources, p < .05. Perceived barriers to disclosure decisions included stigma, lack of knowledge, and personal factors. Supports for decision-making resided within personal, workplace and societal contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides important understanding about the complexity of disclosure decision-making and strategies that people living with HIV can use to address this complex issue.
Keywords: Employment, service delivery, decision-making
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Research has shown that employers’ negative attitudes about hiring people with mental illness is due to stigma. While social contact has been proved to be effective for improving prejudicial attitudes, the influence of knowledge about mental illness on attitudes has been unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between employers’ mental health literacy and their experience or intention of hiring people with mental illness. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted with Japanese employers. The survey included questions regarding participants’ knowledge about mental illness and whether they had hired those with mental illness. RESULTS: Seven…hundred employers participated in the survey. Among participants, while depression was widely recognized and understood according to medical criteria, schizophrenia was not well known. Thirty-five per cent of participants had hired people with mental illness. Those having experience of employing them were more knowledgeable about mental illness. Participants wanting to employ people with mental illness also possessed greater mental health literacy than those who did not want to do so. CONCLUSIONS: Employers’ better mental health literacy could lead to hiring people with mental illness. However, as the relationships between the literacy and employment attitudes are complex, further research is needed.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To estimate the three-year cumulative risk of work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) in a cohort of automotive industry workers and to provide a first test of the ability of the European Assembly Worksheet (EAWS) methodology to predict WRULDs. METHODS: 292 workers were investigated by reviewing workers’ medical records during the period from 2012–2015 to determine their exposure to biomechanical overload according to EAWS risk scores (0–25, low risk, Green zone; 26–50, medium risk, Yellow zone; >50, High risk; Red zone). RESULTS: The risks were 0.83%, 5.71%, and 11.88% for the Control (unexposed), Green and Yellow…Groups, respectively. Only the comparison between the Yellow/Control Groups was significant (p = 0.0014). In total, we observed 17 cases of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) (14 symptomatic and 3 cases detected by physical examination). CONCLUSIONS: The EAWS is a useful tool for the preliminary risk assessments of biomechanical overload among automotive industry workers. The finding of mainly non-specific disorders highly suggests that health surveillance should aim to identify not only full-blown diseases but also symptomatic cases.