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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found physical activity to be associated with decreased organizational cynicism and low performance OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine work engagement and leisure satisfaction in Turkish women with regard to recreational physical activity participation and marital status, and to test the relationship between age and work experience, work engagement and leisure satisfaction. METHODS: Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and Leisure Satisfaction Scale (LSS) were administered to assess women workers’ work engagement and leisure satisfaction. The sample for this project consisted of 317 women workers living in Turkey Ankara.…RESULTS: The analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences in all sub-dimensions of UWES and LSS between single and married participants, with single participants having higher mean scores. There were also statistically significant differences in “vigor” and “dedication” sub-dimensions of UWES, and in all sub-dimensions of LSS regarding to recreational physical activity participation. The results demonstrated that the mean scores of physically active women are higher than the non-active group. CONCLUSIONS: As a result, the data points to exercise participation as a rich source of information about work engagement and leisure satisfaction, and the positive use of leisure counseling as a work engagement.
Keywords: Work life, physical activity, dedication, recreation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Transportation accidents are a global health concern and a leading cause of death. OBJECTIVE: A pragmatic way to decrease these accidents is to examine the routine opportunities that lead to them. Opportunities for accidents were identified by qualitatively examining the tacit knowledge possessed by truck drivers who observe unsafe driving behaviors near their trucks. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 158 truck drivers from 30 states in the United States (US) and three Canadian provinces. During the interviews, truck drivers made 703 observations of unsafe actions they routinely observe car drivers doing near their trucks.…The observations were coded and analyzed with the assistance of a qualitative data analysis software program. RESULTS: The findings revealed 20 unsafe driving behaviors that lead to elevated risk for car drivers. The most common unsafe action (observed by 89% of truckers) involved cars passing trucks and then cutting back into their lane too soon – the ‘front no zone’ safe space. Driving distractions comprised the second group of most commonly observed risky behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reveal that new drivers should receive truck driver awareness training as part of their licensing process and that public health campaigns be developed on the risks of driving near trucks.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Workers engaged in dairy farming are exposed to awkward and poor postures that may result in work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). OBJECTIVE: This study carried out ergonomic interventions in order to eliminate and reduce awkward postures in dairy farming. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study applied rapid entire body assessments (REBA) to evaluate the risks associated with each posture while performing the assigned tasks on a dairy farm in Iran to identify high and very high-risk tasks. A participatory ergonomics model was used that incorporated suggestions by dairy workers to design the used interventions. RESULTS: In…the first intervention, by using an automatic transmission system for pouring milk, one high and one very high-risk task— pouring milk into a bucket and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank, respectively— were eliminated. In the second intervention, two high-risk tasks— filling corn containers and pouring corn into the milling machine— were eliminated by using a material conveying vacuum pump to transfer corn from the ground to the opening of the milling machine. In the third intervention, a simple and cheap holding device for the bag was designed to reduce the posture risk score from very high to medium. The fourth intervention involved the use of a shovel with a handle appropriate to the anthropometric characteristics of the workers that reduced the posture risk from very high to medium. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that applying participatory ergonomic principles along with low cost and simple designs with high performance resulted in significant reductions in postural risks pertaining to of musculoskeletal disorders on Iran dairy farms.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: One of the resources that may prevent burnout and foster the work engagement of teachers is Principal support. In this study we aimed to further explore the links between Principal support and work engagement and burnout, by testing the role of the teachers’ emotions and the educational levels of primary schools. OBJECTIVES: Testing 1) the mediating role of teachers’ emotions in explaining the relationship between perceived Principal support and work engagement and burnout, 2) differences in tested constructs, and the structural equivalence of the proposed relationship among constructs, between teachers from two educational levels of primary schools.…METHODS: The study included subsamples of 868 class teachers (lower grades) and 1057 subject teachers (upper grades) employed at 104 primary schools in Croatia. Teachers filled out self-report scales measuring burnout, work engagement, perceived Principal support and the positive and negative emotions experienced in relation to students. RESULTS: Emotions partially mediate the relationship between perceived Principal support and work engagement and burnout among teachers. Although class teachers experience higher levels of positive emotions and work engagement compared to subject teachers, the results confirmed the structural equivalence of the hypothesized model across two education levels of primary school. CONSLUSION: The Principal support predicts work engagement and burnout in teachers both directly and indirectly via emotions.
Keywords: Primary school, well-being, work motivation, exhaustion, disengagement
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face greatest difficulty in managing occupational risks compared to large enterprises. Limited resources, little knowledge about risk management process and deficiencies in organizational processes are often pointed in the literature as important obstacles to occupational safety and health (OSH) performance in SMEs. However, external factors can also be of paramount importance, such as the economic crisis. Because under specific scenarios OSH conditions may deteriorate in SMEs, is important to establish effective indicators. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify OSH performance indicators within the context of SMEs. METHODS: To identify the…indicators, a literature review was carried out on different studies published in scientific journals in the OSH field between 2008 and October 2018 using the Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and PubMed databases. RESULTS: As a result, 14 management and organization OSH indicators applied to SMEs were identified, along with 5 at individual OSH indicators. CONCLUSION: The indicators were discussed in relation to its applicability to assess OSH performance, as well as their reliability. Future research should be done to assess the identified indicators in SMEs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Active labour market policies (ALMP) are used in advanced welfare states to support transitions to work for people who are unemployed or underemployed, including people with disabilities (PWD) in receipt of means-tested disability income support. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the nature, strength, and limitations of ALMP across advanced welfare states (ALMP) for people with disabilities (PWD) in receipt of income benefits from social assistance programs. METHODS: Following the eight steps of a scoping study, we identified 21 documents through a scan of eight databases and consultation with key informants. The majority of these documents are…scholarly publications including seven literature reviews, two program evaluations, four social policy analyses, and two longitudinal studies. RESULTS: We extracted key findings related to delivery of labour (re)entry interventions for people with disabilities. Six themes are identified that discuss these ALMP features: 1) welfare ideology and the role of citizenship; 2) conditionality of benefits; 3) work capacity and the need for an appropriate definition of disability; 4) the politics of employment outcomes for PWD; 5) the missing elements of a successful ALMP; and 6) moving beyond ALMP. The findings indicate that while various approaches are used in reintegrating PWD into mainstream employment, there are significant limitations that curtail the impact of these policies. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of welfare regime, no welfare state provides a policy mix that results in long-term employment success for PWD in receipt of means-tested income benefits.
Keywords: Welfare, disability pensions, social assistance, employment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Science, technology and innovation (STI) governance concerns itself with the societal impact of STI. Occupation, whether used with the meaning of paid, unpaid work or any activity that is considered meaningful to the individual on an everyday basis, is one area of societal impact of STI. Fields such as occupational therapy, occupational science and occupational health and safety concern themselves with the relationship between occupation and the health and well-being of human beings albeit all with different foci. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the knowledge of students from two Occupational Therapy programs on STI governance, specific STI products and…their views on the impact of STI governance and STI products on occupational therapy and its clients. METHODS: Online survey employing Yes/No’ questions with comment boxes and open-ended textbox questions. Descriptive quantitative and thematic qualitative data was generated. RESULTS: Students were unfamiliar with STI governance discourses but felt that they should be aware of them. Students stated that how one governs STI impacts occupational therapy on all levels and that the occupational therapy community has expertise that would enrich STI governance discourses around occupation. CONCLUSION: Education actions seem to be warranted on the level of students and practitioners by the occupational therapy and STI governance communities.
Keywords: Occupational therapy, governance, science, technology, innovation, human enhancement, robotics, brain machine interface, autonomous cars, students
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In Scandinavia, women of childbearing age represent nearly 50% of the overall workforce. Two-thirds of these women spend a considerable time on sick leave during their pregnancies. Low back pain accounts for a significant portion of all pregnancy-related sick leave. However, pregnant women’s experiences with pain-induced sick leave remains unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate women’s experiences with sick leave in relation to pregnancy-induced low back pain. METHODS: An inductive, qualitative study based on semi-structured, in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 19 purposefully selected Danish women. Interviews were analysed by means of thematic content analysis.…RESULTS: The analysis revealed 4 categories: (1) Stuck in a diagnosis, (2) Inflexibility of the labour market, (3) Adapting to reduced capacity for work, and (4) Being socially excluded. The women’s experiences revolved around disruption of their physical functioning and expected capacity for work, a loss of professional identity, and a sense of inflexibility and exclusion from important relationships at work. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illuminate the possibilities for workplace adjustments with the intention of reducing time spent on sick leave, maintaining pregnant women’s affiliation with their workplace, and a need to explore the role of healthcare professionals in addressing women’s supportive needs in relation to sick leave.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several professionals in hospitals can be affected by work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the body posture and self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms of employees in the healthcare and administrative section of a university hospital. METHODS: Body posture and self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms of 106 employees were quantitatively evaluated. The sample was divided into two groups: health care group (HCG) composed of 57 professionals (88% were females) with an average age of 34±7 years, mass of 66.52±14.78 kg, height of 1.62±0.07 m, and body mass index (BMI) of 25.37±4.50 kg/m2 ; and the administrative section group (ADMG) composed…of 49 professionals (57% were females) with an average age of 30±7 years, mass of 74.90±14.12 kg, height of 1.68±0.09 m, and BMI of 26.76±4.40 kg/m2 . RESULTS: The only significant difference between groups for the body posture was the greater right Q-angle in the CG (p = 0.039). Self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms in the seven days prior to assessment were not associated with work section. CONCLUSION: The work section within the university hospital did not influence body posture or self-reporting of musculoskeletal symptoms among the healthcare and administrative staff.