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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Violence and threats of violence against personnel at psychiatric wards as well as in the prison service is a major work environment problem. To date results from interventions to prevent violence and threats in these sectors have been inconclusive or of small effect. One of the reasons may be that violence and threats of violence occur as a consequence of a complex interaction between employee-level and management-level factors. OBJECTIVE: To design a tailored and theory-based intervention program directed at violence prevention in psychiatric wards and prisons that integrates the employee-level and management-level, and development of an evaluation…design building on the Context, Process, and Outcome Evaluation Model. METHODS: The study follows a stepped-wedged design with 16 work units entering the intervention in four groups with differing start dates from September 2017 to January 2019. The context and process evaluation includes: calculating the implementation degree; mapping of contextual factors; interviews with unit-leaders and employees before and after the intervention. The outcome evaluation includes performing multi-level statistical analysis on data from a three-monthly questionnaire to employees at the participating workplaces. RESULTS: The first results will be available in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive evaluation of the intervention will give insight into the processes and effects of the intervention.
Keywords: ISRCTN86993466, Organizational intervention, process evaluation, stepped-wedged design
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is associated with various severe health risks. Therefore, the need to decrease smoking rates is a great public health concern. The workplace has capability as a setting through which large groups of smokers can be reached to encourage smoking cessation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of a multi behavioral worksite health promotion intervention. The primary outcome was the change of smoking rate. Secondary outcomes were changes in smoking attitudes and readiness to stop smoking among employees over an intervention period of 12 months. METHOD: 112 and 110…employees were enrolled in the intervention and control arm respectively. The intervention group received a 12-month multicomponent health promotion intervention. One of the main elements of the multicomponent intervention was a smoking cessation and counseling program. During the pilot year, participants completed a self-evaluation questionnaire at baseline and again after 12 months to related outcomes and changes. RESULTS: Results showed that participants’ quit behavior and smoking behavior changed over time in the intervention group (IG). Readiness to quit smoking also increased in the IG compared to the comparison group (CG). Some positive intervention effects were observed for cognitive factors (e.g., changes attitudes towards smoking). Baseline willingness to change smoking behavior was significantly improved over time. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed initial results of a long-term multicomponent worksite health promotion program with regard to changes in smoking behavior, attitudes towards smoking and readiness to quit smoking. The evaluation suggests that a worksite health promotion program may lead to improvements in smoking behavior for a number of workers.
Keywords: abstinence, cessation, health promotion, quit behavior, smoking
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical health and well-being are affected by work rumination and the role of work interruptions as job events. It was hypothesized that stressful work interruptions, would be related to affective rumination, psychosomatic symptoms and poorer general health. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of work rumination in the relationship between work interruptions, physical and general well-being. METHODS: Self-reports of distressing work interruptions, psychosomatic symptoms and general health data were gathered from employees (N = 139) from diverse occupational groups. RESULTS: Affective rumination acted as a partial…mediator (β = 0.37) and moderator (β = 0.24) in the relationship between stressful work interruptions and psychosomatic symptoms. As a mediator affective rumination explains 34.8% of the effect of work interruptions on psychosomatic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Affective rumination about work hinders psycho-physiological recovery, and such an effect relates to stressful work interruptions. Implications for future research are discussed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There are few correlational studies comparing family-work reconciliation between groups of women. OBJECTIVE: We intend to correlate and compare the use of time, purchasing power, and job satisfaction between two groups of working women, women with children and women without children. METHODS: This is a correlational and comparative study. The following instruments were used: Activities Diary; Brazilian Criteria for Economic Classification; and the short version of the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire. A total of 171 women participated in the study: one group was composed of 78 women with children and the other group was…composed of 93 women without children. Data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Wilcoxon test, Student’s t -test and the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. RESULTS: Women with children spent more hours/day on hygiene, taking care of elderly individuals, practicing their religion, and studying (p = 0.001), but they presented no statistical differences in job satisfaction from those women without children (p = 0.2362). Women with children belonged to a higher economic classification and had greater purchasing power than women without children. CONCLUSIONS: Having children is a variable that influences time use, purchasing power, and job satisfaction among women and the presence of children is a factor that may increase the purchasing power of a woman.
Keywords: Women studies, economic status, purchasing power, work-family balance
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Symptoms of burnout among new professionals is a well-recognized problem but there is a lack of prevention programs. Effective interventions are based on an understanding of the processes that contribute to the development of a problem and suggest how it may be addressed. OBJECTIVE: Using the framework of organizational socialization, the objective of this study was to investigate if development of the socialization processes role clarity, social acceptance, and task mastery affects development of symptoms of burnout among new professionals and may specifically be targeted in transition-to-practice programs to prevent symptoms of burnout from occurring. We conducted…this investigation by examining the relations between role clarity, social acceptance, task mastery, and symptoms of burnout the first year after professional entry, as well as the relations between changes in the socialization processes and changes in symptoms of burnout during the first three years following professional entry in a sample of new nurses. METHOD: Relationships between the socialization processes and symptoms of burnout were modeled using a linear latent growth model and data from a nationally representative sample of 1210 new registered nurses. RESULTS: Role clarity, social acceptance, and task mastery were related to symptoms of burnout cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Task mastery was the most important explanatory variable. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that an intervention designed to support the development of the socialization processes may be effective in preventing symptoms of burnout among new nurses. Interventions targeting role clarity, social acceptance, and task mastery during the first professional year may be expected to have effects during the following years as well, extending the value and importance of such interventions.
Keywords: Organizational socialization, transition, stress, growth model
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The number of older workers will expand during the next decades. Older workers have more long-term health problems and related limitations. OBJECTIVE: This study examined supportive actions provided in occupational healthcare services to older workers after vocational rehabilitation. An additional purpose was to explore occupational healthcare professionals’ views on how to realize and improve adequate support activities. METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used, including a postal questionnaire and focus group discussions. Sixty-seven occupational healthcare service units participated in the postal questionnaire. Eight occupational healthcare professionals participated in two focus group discussions. The qualitative data…was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The qualitative analysis resulted in one theme (Act with respect), and four categories (Need for cooperation, Collaborative resources of involved stakeholders, Individual needs for support, and Gender as homogenous and separate groups). Quantitative results revealed that the workers’ initiative strongly influenced the support carried out. Recommendations from the rehabilitation clinic were almost always considered when deciding on supportive actions. Focus group discussions brought up gender differences especially highlighted in the category Gender as homogenous and separate groups. CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate support of older workers requires cooperation between involved stakeholders, including occupational healthcare services. Provided support should be based on individual needs, but a mutual practice of determining needed support is requested.
Keywords: Work ability, occupational health, aging, gender, support
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Workplace mental health disability claims are rising with concomitant challenges to return-to-work (RTW) success. Cognitive work hardening (CWH) addresses work re-entry issues including fatigue, coping skills, and reduced cognitive abilities which are relevant for people returning to work following an episode of depression. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into underlying factors contributing to CWH’s effectiveness in RTW preparation following depression. METHODS: Twenty-one individuals on paid disability leave due to depression completed a four week CWH treatment intervention prior to returning to work. At program completion and at three months follow up, participants provided qualitative information regarding…their experience of the intervention in the form of written questionnaires and interviews. Data were analyzed using a directed approach to content analysis. RESULTS: Intervention elements perceived by participants as helpful included structure, work simulations, and simulated work environment. Main treatment gains reported by participants related to routine, self-confidence, stamina, and cognitive abilities. Personal agency, empowerment, and skill development emerged as important consequences of interventions for RTW following depression. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings enhance understanding of CWH with relevance to clinical practice. Key intervention elements deemed important for RTW are discussed and may provide guidance for other work-re-entry programs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the global economy, motivating people to engage and stay in their work is a challenge for organizations. Researchers are increasingly recognizing the need for promoting strong employee engagement in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: This paper examines the effect of employee work engagement on turnover intention. The study focuses on the mediating role of trust that underpins the relationship between employee work engagement and turnover intention, and the moderating role of job embeddedness in influencing the effect of trust. METHOD: Survey data were collected from 418 employees from private media organizations. Hierarchical regression analysis and moderated…mediation analysis were employed to test the hypotheses. RESULTS: The results indicate that trust mediates the relationship between employee work engagement and turnover intention. Job embeddedness moderates the strength of the mediated relationship between employee work engagement and turnover intention via trust, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high job embeddedness than under low job embeddedness. CONCLUSION: This paper described the relationships among the concepts of work engagement, job embeddedness, trust, and turnover intention from a novel direction. Theoretical and practical consequences of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Job embeddedness, trust, work engagement, turnover intention, media employees, Pakistan
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A conceptual framework is needed to understand injured workers’ decision-making and inform evidence-based interventions to address behavior change regarding return-to-work (RTW). The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) can help with understanding how an injured worker’s characteristics can generate behavior change while Motivational Interviewing (MI) can help facilitate behavior change. OBJECTIVE: This theoretical paper provides an overview of how MOHO and MI can be applied and integrated in occupational rehabilitation. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) evaluate MOHO as a framework for supporting occupational therapists (OTs) in occupational rehabilitation; (2) describe MI as a suitable approach…for OTs in occupational rehabilitation; and (3) compare and integrate MOHO and MI. METHOD: Several important works and reviews were used to integrate MOHO and MI with occupational rehabilitation. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The identification of a model and approach to support OT practice in occupational rehabilitation can assist OTs to determine the most appropriate interventions and contribute to standards of best practice. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating MOHO and MI provides a comprehensive framework for understanding impairment and RTW change processes with the potential to reduce work disability and improve RTW outcomes.
Keywords: Return-to-work, readiness for change, work disability