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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Unsafe behavior is an important component in the chain of accident occurrences, and thus plays a key role in the accident prevention programs in construction sites. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this qualitative research is to study the perception of frontline workers, supervisors, and managers about the preconditions of and contributing factors to unsafe behaviors in civil engineering projects. METHODS: Field observation, in-depth interview, and focus group discussion are conducted with 113 informants from various mega projects during a 2-year time period. Fishbone diagram is applied to describe a conceptual model. RESULTS: The results…point to fourteen themes within four categories of the conceptual model – general management, organizational factors, safety supervision and management, and individual characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: General management and organizational culture were introduced as important preconditions and contributing factors resulting in human error and unsafe behavior in the construction sites. The fishbone diagram reveals the sequence and interaction of preconditions and contributing factors. The key contributing factors and their influences on unsafe behaviors are discussed along with recommendations for future directions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sustained low-level muscle activity occurring during computer-based tasks is associated with the development of WMSDs (work-related musculoskeletal disorders) and this biomechanical exposure may be different between limbs. OBJECTIVE: To compare muscle activity from dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius (UT) and wrist extensors (WE) during computer-based tasks in real work settings. METHODS: Forty-five workers were monitored during two hours while performing their usual administrative tasks. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded from UT and WE muscles in both sides. Rest and general exposure variables were calculated. RESULTS: The 50th percentile demonstrated little muscle activity demand,…for both dominant and non-dominant UT and no difference between sides was observed. The dominant WE muscles had lower measures of rest and higher muscle activity when compared with the non-dominant side. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in sEMG between upper limbs were only found in WE muscles, probably due to the use of the mouse. The overall low-level muscle activity suggests a constant activation of the same motor units for the entire data-collection period, which can be considered harmful for musculoskeletal health.
Keywords: Office work, occupational health, EMG, muscular rest, gap frequency
Abstract: BACKGROUND: During the 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic, roughly half of survey respondents reported having worn a hygiene mask. However, most were unsatisfied with commercially available masks. OBJECTIVE: The long-term goal was to develop a comfortable, high-performance hygiene mask. This study investigated holistic attitudes of mask wearers and identified the most prominent problems as a basis for developing a new mask. METHODS: In 2009, 2012, and 2015, identical surveys were conducted among Japanese university students. The rate of mask use, intended uses, and problems reported while wearing a mask were aggregated. Co-occurrence analysis of individual respondents’ data…was conducted. RESULTS: For men, the most intended uses were influenza prevention in 2009 and common cold prevention in 2012 and 2015; common problems were humidity in the mask, glasses misting over, and breathing difficulty. For women, the most intended use was common cold prevention in all 3 years; common problems were humidity, glasses misting over, breathing difficulty, and makeup coming off. CONCLUSIONS: Men’s attitudes in 2009 were different from those in 2012 and 2015. However, women’s major attitudes were consistent in all 3 years. For both sexes, the most commonly reported problem was humidity in all 3 years. It is expected that more comfortable masks for daily use will result from improving humidity characteristics.
Keywords: Intended use, problem awareness, co-occurrence analysis
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Office workers spend long hours in their workplace, and these environments impact their well-being and performance. This relationship can involve different mediation chains. The degree of complexity of this relationship can vary depending on different types of office work (work patterns) employees carry out. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between indoor environment and absenteeism, and the mediating role of job satisfaction, affective well-being, and health, in different work patterns. METHOD: 1306 office workers from different European countries were classified into work patterns depending on: task complexity and interactivity. RESULTS: Job satisfaction, affective well-being,…and health mediate the relationship between indoor environment and absenteeism. However, differences in the mediation paths were found for different work patterns. The paths through which indoor environment can affect absenteeism increased as the work patterns increased in complexity and interactivity. CONCLUSION: Work patterns play a role in the relationship between indoor environment, health, well-being, and absenteeism. This study highlights the mechanisms through which an improved indoor environment can protect employees’ well-being, and decrease absenteeism in different work patterns. It also points out workers especially at risk of a detrimental impact of poor indoor environment and it suggests ways to prevent them.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that leadership behaviors and sense of coherence (SOC) influences subordinate health. However, this has not been investigated in any detail. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between leadership behaviors and SOC. It was hypothesized that both task and relation oriented leadership behaviors would be positively associated with SOC, whereas a laissez-faire leadership would be negatively associated with SOC. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of managers and subordinates in a large governmental organization. The study used two common and empirically tested leadership styles: task oriented leadership and relation oriented leadership. In a…logistic regression analysis, the association between types of leadership behavior and SOC were analyzed while controlling for age, gender, income, type of employment and organizational tenure. RESULTS: Neither task oriented or relation oriented leadership behavior were significantly associated with SOC. CONCLUSIONS: The result indicates that the type of leadership behavior exercised is not directly associated with subordinate’s SOC. In future studies the importance of subordinate leadership preferences should be acknowledged. More research is needed to reach an understanding as to the nature of and the potential of this mechanism.