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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Job satisfaction is one of the key elements in effective human resource management. A dental practitioner is constantly exposed to harmful effects of numerous risk factors affecting health. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the level of job satisfaction among dentists and the factors that are associated with it. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 610 dentists representing different types of medical practice settings in. The entities were selected randomly. The study was conducted using personal interview technique based on a specially prepared form of structured questionnaire. The questions included a four -step scale reflecting…the job satisfaction. Quantitative variables were presented by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. Qualitative variables were presented by absolute and relative frequency (rate) of their respective categories. RESULTS: More than 90% of respondents declared satisfaction with their profession. There was a relationship between job satisfaction and doctor’s age, gender, the location of the office, and whether public or private sector practice. There was no statistically significant relationship between job satisfaction and type of dental practice setting or income. CONCLUSIONS: Higher professional satisfaction was observed in the group of younger doctors working in the private sector in large cities. Women reported satisfaction more often than men. The external environment had no impact on professional satisfaction.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ontario’s occupational health and safety prevention system has identified a need for the systematic collection of occupational exposure data for ongoing surveillance and targeted prevention initiatives. OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility of collecting occupational exposure information within a primary care clinical setting. METHODS: Five healthcare centres were recruited. Working patients answered basic occupational exposure questions. Clinicians reviewed the answers with patients. Answers were entered into the patient’s electronic medical records (EMRs). A knowledge broker supported the health centres throughout the trial with background information and linking to occupational expertise. Interviews with administrators and clinicians examined…the usefulness of the survey to primary care, the barriers and facilitators, and sought suggestions for sustaining the practice. A cross-case analysis, framed by a conceptual model, was conducted from the feedback. RESULTS: Themes highlighted the importance of clinician and administrator buy-in, the perceived relevance of occupational exposures to primary care clinicians and the patient population, and the need for clinicians to feel confident about the health impact and relevance of occupational exposures to presenting clinical problems. CONCLUSION: Clinicians ask work exposure-related questions when patients have a health concern that the clinicians suspect may be related to a work exposure. No clear clinical purpose for routinely asking exposure questions emerged.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Engagement in religious and spiritual activities and expression are important to many people. Praying in a mosque is a major component of basic worship for Muslims. Riyadh has a population of more than six million people and more than 17 thousand mosques. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore wheelchair accessibility of mosques in Riyadh from the perspective of wheelchair users and their caregivers. METHODS: A survey was conducted to explore the opinions of wheelchair users and their caregivers regarding wheelchair accessibility of frequently used mosques. RESULTS: Forty-eight wheelchair users and…12 caregivers participated in the study. The main reason for being confined to a wheelchair was a motor vehicle accident (77%). The majority of the participants (84%) indicated that they needed assistance to propel their wheelchairs. Overall, 86% of wheelchair users and 84% of caregivers expressed dissatisfaction with the mosques’ accessibility for wheelchair users. CONCLUSION: Mosques were found not to be accessible for wheelchair users. The current situation forces wheelchair users to pray in isolation in their houses, preventing them from participating in an important part of their faith. Though acts mandating the accessibility of public places for wheelchair users have been promulgated in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the acts are not implemented in ways which can contribute to a meaningful, tolerable and independent life for wheelchair users.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Some stroke survivors hope to resume driving after hospital discharge. For those who had driven frequently before their stroke, a normal daily life depends on being able to drive. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores predict patient driving ability, which would make them a suitable index for determining if a stroke patient can resume driving. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 71 patients who suffered from stroke. We divided them into three groups based on their driving status after discharge: (1) resumed driving (Driver), (2) wish to resume…driving (Wisher), and (3) no wish to resume driving (Non-wisher). We compared total FIM scores and subcategories of FIM scores across groups. RESULTS: Scores on the Motor-FIM and Cognitive-FIM were highest in the Driver group, followed by the Wisher and Non-wisher groups. Moreover, scores on the ‘problem solving’ and ‘memory’ subcategories of the Cognitive-FIM were significantly higher in the Driver group than in the Wisher group. CONCLUSIONS: The FIM could be a useful assessment tool for determining whether or not stroke patients can resume driving. Moreover, among the Cognitive-FIM sub-categories, problem solving and memory ability might be the scores most relevant for this decision.
Keywords: Vehicle driving, stroke, functional independence measure, cognitive function
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Coping with regret has a substantial impact on wellbeing and mental health, but has rarely been investigated in an occupational setting. OBJECTIVE: To translate the Regret Coping Scale for Health-Care Professionals (RCS-HCP) and explore internal consistency, construct-, criterion- and predictive validity. METHODS: The instrument was translated using forward- back method. The qualities were evaluated with a sample of 2758 social educators using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis as well as Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation, and multivariable regression. RESULTS: The translated instrument showed a trend similar to the original instrument. A 10-item version resulted…from the research being reported. The reduced RCS-HCP showed improved fit (Full model, 15 items); CFI = 0.91, TLI = 0.89, RMSEA = 0.66, PClose = 0.000 and BIC = 1392 vs. (Reduced instrument, 10 items); CFI = 0.97, TLI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, PClose = 0.499 and BIC 307. This instrument had acceptable internal consistency for short scales (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.65, 0.69 and 0.84 respectively). The subscales correlated as expected with measures of health and occupational factors, coefficient ranging from 0.182 to 0.399. Also, the RCS-HCP predicted stress three month later ΔF[3,2747] = 15.1, p < 0.001, but with very small effect ΔR2 = 0.01, p ≤0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The 10-item Danish version of the RCS-HCP is a valid instrument for measuring coping with regret in health related work.
Keywords: Instrument validation, occupational health, work environment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The employment rates of people with disabilities (PWDs) are lower than the general population in many countries because of several factors, including prejudices about labour production and absenteeism of these workers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the research was to evaluate the absenteeism of PWDs in the construction industry in the metropolitan area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Study participants were workers with disabilities that performed jobs at the work sites in the construction industry. Participants were interviewed and they answered the Work Limitation Questionnaire (WLQ). In order to compare the absenteeism of people with disabilities…and without disabilities, the companies provided real absenteeism data. RESULTS: Twenty-five workers with disabilities participated in the study, of which 32% were laborers and 72% had physical disabilities. The companies made accommodations for 56% of PWDs and all of them were the organizational type. The WLQ summed score of the PWDs was 3.16. The mean absenteeism of the PWDs was 19.00% ±1.22 standard deviation (SD) (p = 0.238) higher in relation to workers without disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the workers with disabilities had lower absenteeism than those without disability, however, the mean absenteeism of PWDs was higher in relation to workers without disabilities. In addition, workers higher educational level, the laborer of auxiliary warehouse, the workers for whom the companies have not made accommodations to the workplace and the higher WLQ summed score lower statistically significantly absenteeism in relation to workers without disabilities.
Keywords: Absence management, job accommodation, workers with disabilities, civil construction, work environments
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Most working-age adults with psychiatric disabilities are not employed yet are interested in being in employment. This goal is achievable for the majority who are interested, with the help of international evidence-based practices in vocational rehabilitation. However, these practices are not widely available in developed countries. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether, and how, the availability of evidence-based vocational rehabilitation is linked to government policy. METHODS: A systematic examination of New Zealand’s economic and social policy context to understand how it facilitates or hinders evidence-based vocational rehabilitation for people with psychiatric disabilities. RESULTS: The New…Zealand policy context is currently hindering the availability of evidence-based vocational rehabilitation for people with psychiatric disabilities. Whilst policy reform has commenced, it has not yet translated into a purchasing framework free of policy conflicts and barriers. Consequently, the proportion of people with psychiatric disabilities not employed and not participating in the labor market is increasing. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting the policy adjustments identified could expand the availability of evidence-based vocational rehabilitation, reducing the disparity between individual vocational goals and actual labor force activity. This in turn could have national social and economic benefits through reduced welfare dependence, reduced health service utilization, and increased labor force participation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Masonry workers engaged in occupational work-activities have high risk of shoulder injury that often develops to functional loss and disability. Rehabilitative exercises (REs) have potential for slowing this development. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to study the effects of three selected REs on integrated electromyography activations of the external rotator muscles and trapezius muscles of masonry workers. METHODS: Ten subjects, masonry workers having shoulder pain, have volunteered for this study. Each subject performs three selected REs: (1) Prone horizontal abduction at 90° with full external rotation with thumb right up. (2) Side lying external rotation (ER)…with elbow on the trunk. (3) ER at 90° abduction and elbow flexion at 90° in standing position. Selection of REs is based on their superior performance in earlier studies. Electromyography (EMG) differences among the exercises are tested for statistical significance. RESULTS: A cross comparison of REs shows that exercises (1) and (3) produce high rotator cuff synergy, an average of infraspinatus and teres-minor activities. Exercise (3) minimizes the risk of subacromial impingement by presenting the least posterior deltoid activity. However, exercise (1) reduces the risk of abnormal scapular movement by producing higher middle trapezius and lower trapezius activities than upper trapezius activity. CONCLUSION: The results provide basic information to design appropriate rehabilitation programs for masonry workers having shoulder pain.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Automobile assembly workers repeatedly place burdens on their lumbar regions, which can lead to mechanical chronic low back pain. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises performed on a stable or unstable surface on lumbar pain, muscle strength, stability, disability, and depression in patients with chronic low back pain. METHODS: Twenty-four patients were randomly allocated to a stable or unstable surface group (n = 12 each). Both groups performed each lumbar stabilization exercise for 30 minutes daily five times per week for 6 weeks. Lumbar pain, muscle strength, stability,…disability, and depression were assessed before and after intervention. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of training, lumbar pain, stability, disability, and depression improved significantly, whereas muscle strength did not. All post-test values in the unstable surface group improved significantly more than those in the stable surface group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate the more favorable effects of an unstable exercise surface in patients with chronic low back pain. However, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.