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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the employment rate of people with visual impairments (PVIs) is lower than that of the general working-age population. To improve the employment rate of this group, there is a need for knowledge about differences in modifiable factors between working and non-working PVIs. OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable factors associated with participation on the competitive labour market of PVIs. Based on the findings, we aim to develop an individual assessment instrument for determining the odds of labour market success of PVIs. METHODS: Data were collected among 299 PVIs by means of a cross-sectional telephone survey based…on existing (validated) and self-developed scales and items. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the strongest predictors of the dichotomous outcome of ‘having paid work on the competitive labour market’ (yes/no). RESULTS: We found three personal non-modifiable factors (level of education, comorbidity, level of visual impairment) and three modifiable factors (mobility, acceptance and optimism) to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with having paid work. CONCLUSIONS: The factors of optimism, acceptance and mobility should be included in an individual assessment instrument which can provide PVIs and their job coaches with good starting points for improving the labour market situation of the PVIs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lean philosophy is used by companies to increase productivity and reduce costs. Although uncontested benefits are created, it is necessary to highlight the problems related to employees’ health and welfare caused by implementing lean manufacturing projects. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this paper is to review the literature and identify the most relevant problems created by lean philosophy for employees. METHODS: Research about the theme was performed on many international databases over three months, and an initial sample of 77 papers was found. Twenty-seven sources were utilized. RESULTS: We identified 22 categories of…problems related to health and welfare of employees. CONCLUSIONS: The most cited problem was work intensification, mentioned by thirteen papers. Increased stress and increased responsibilities, demands and, consequently, pressure on the workers are among the primary problems observed in the research.
Keywords: Production system, workers, productivity
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The majority of research about employment discrimination in the U.S. Mining, Quarrying, and Oil/Gas (MQOGE) industries has concentrated on gender and race, while little attention has focused on disability. OBJECTIVE: To explore allegations of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Title I discrimination made to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) by individuals with disabilities against MQOGE employers. METHODS: Key data available to this study included demographic characteristics of charging parties, size of employers, types of allegations, and case outcomes. Using descriptive analysis, allegation profiles were developed for MQOGE’s three main sectors (i.e., Oil/Gas Extraction, Mining…except Oil/Gas, and Support Activities). These three profiles where then comparatively analyzed. Lastly, regression analysis explored whether some of the available data could partially predict MQOGE case outcomes. RESULTS: The predominant characteristics of MQOGE allegations were found to be quite similar to the allegation profile of U.S. private-sector industry as a whole, and fairly representative of MQOGE’s workforce demographics. Significant differences between MQOGE’s three main sector profiles were noted on some important characteristics. Lastly, it was found that MQOGE case outcomes could be partially predicted via some of the available variables. CONCLUSIONS: The study’s limitations were presented and recommendations were offered for further research.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neck pain is one of the largest health problems in the military sector. OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in the strength and endurance of the cervical muscles between military personnel with chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNSNP) with higher level of kinesiophobia (CNSNP-K) and individuals with lower levels of kinesiophobia (CNSNP-NK). METHODS: We used kinesiophobia as a classification method: (1) CNSNP-K and (2) CNSNP-NK. The variables measured were endurance and strength of cervical muscles; range of motion (ROM), disability, pain intensity and psychological factors. RESULTS: Eighty-three military personnel (26 CNSNP-K; 20 CNSNP-NK and 37 asymptomatic).…Statistically significant differences in endurance and ROM were only found between the CNSNP-K group and the control group. In strength and disability differences were revealed between both symptomatic groups and the control group [CNSNP-K vs. control (flex-ext p < 0.001); CNSNP-NK vs. control (flex p = 0.003) and (ext p < 0.001)]. For psychological variables, the CNSNP-K group showed differences compared with the CNSNP-NK (pain catastrophizing, p = 0.007; anxiety and depression, p < 0.001) and with the asymptomatic group (pain catastrophizing, p = 0.008; anxiety and depression, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Military personnel with CNSNP-K have functional limitations and associated psychosocial factors compared with asymptomatic subjects, and showed greater associated psychological factors than CNSNP-NK group. Military personnel with CNSNP-NK only showed decreased strength with respect to those who were asymptomatic.
Keywords: Physical endurance, muscle strength, range of motion and psychosocial factors
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The evidence literature suggests that physical therapy practitioners are subjected to a high probability of acquiring work-related injuries, but only a few studies have specifically investigated Taiwanese physical therapy practitioners. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the relationships among individual and group hospital-level factors that contribute to the medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan with occupational injuries were selected from the 2013 National Health Insurance Research Databases (NHIRD). METHODS: The age, gender, job title, hospitals attributes, and outpatient data of…physical therapy practitioners who sustained an occupational injury in 2013 were obtained with SAS 9.3. SPSS 20.0 and HLM 7.01 were used to conduct descriptive and hierarchical linear model analyses, respectively. RESULTS: The job title of physical therapy practitioners at the individual level and the hospital type at the group level exert positive effects on per person medical expenses. Hospital hierarchy moderates the individual-level relationships of age and job title with the per person medical expenses. CONCLUSION: Considering that age, job title, and hospital hierarchy affect medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners, we suggest strengthening related safety education and training and elevating the self-awareness of the risk of occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners to reduce and prevent the occurrence of such injuries.
Keywords: National Health Insurance Research Database, work-related injuries, medical expenses
Abstract: BACKGROUND: While a considerable body of research has studied safety climate and its role as a leading indicator of organizational safety, much of this work has been conducted with Western manufacturing samples. OBJECTIVE: The current study puts emphasis on the cross-validation of a safety climate model in the non-Western industrial context of Iranian petrochemical industries. METHODS: The current study was performed in one petrochemical company in Iran. The scale was developed through conducting a literature review followed by a qualitative study with expert participation. After performing a screening process, the initial number of items on the…scale was reduced to 68. RESULTS: Ten dimensions (including management commitment, workers’ empowerment, communication, blame culture, safety training, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationship, supervision, continuous improvement, and reward system) together with 37 items were extracted from the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to measure safety climate. Acceptable ranges of internal consistency statistics for the sub-scales were observed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the construct validity of the developed safety climate scale for the petrochemical industry workers. The results of reliability showed that the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the designed scale was 0.94. The ICC was obtained 0.92. CONCLUSION: This study created a valid and reliable scale for measuring safety climate in petrochemical industries.
Keywords: Organizational factors, scale development, leading indicator
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Within a Job Demands-Resources Model framework, formal mentoring can be conceived as a job resource expressing the organization’s support for new members, which may prevent their being at risk for burnout. OBJECTIVE: This research aims at understanding the protective role of formal mentoring on burnout, through the effect of increasing learning personal resources. Specifically, we hypothesized that formal mentoring enhances newcomers’ learning about job and social domains related to the new work context, thus leading to lower burnout. METHODS: In order to test the hypotheses, a multiple regression analysis using the bootstrapping method was used.…RESULTS: Based on a questionnaire administered to 117 correctional officer newcomers who had a formal mentor assigned, our results confirm that formal mentoring exerts a positive influence on newcomers’ adjustment, and that this in turn exerts a protective influence against burnout onset by reducing cynicism and interpersonal stress and also enhancing the sense of personal accomplishment. CONCLUSIONS: Confirming previous literature’s suggestions, supportive mentoring and effective socialization seem to represent job and personal resources that are protective against burnout. This study provides empirical support for this relation in the prison context.
Keywords: Burnout, mentoring, organizational socialization, personal resources, newcomers
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Work engagement has been conceptualized as a relatively stable phenomenon, partly explained by the presence of specific job and organizational characteristics. Work engagement is important to the dental workforce worldwide, and the lack of it has been known to cause burnout. Positivity among dentists is essential as it is directly proportional to the patient’s satisfaction towards the dental care. OBJECTIVE: To assess work engagement among dentists in the city of Hyderabad, India. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted to assess work engagement among dentists enrolled with the local branch of the Indian Dental Association…in the city of Hyderabad, India. The shortened form of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) questionnaire was employed for the assessment. The mean scores of total work engagement and its domains based on gender and educational qualifications were estimated using Student t - test. RESULTS: A total of 371 subjects participated in the study. Females reported higher mean scores than males for total work (p = 0.40) and its dimensions (Vigor; p = 0.23, Dedication; p = 0.53, Absorption; p = 0.69). Dentists with Master’s degree had higher mean scores not only in the total work, but also in its dimensions. (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The present study reported that females had higher mean scores of total work engagement and its individual domains. In comparison with a Bachelor’s degree, having a Master’s degree enhanced work engagement among dentists in Hyderabad, India.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is important to the development of an organization. Research into factors that foster OCB and the underlying processes are therefore substantially crucial. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to test the association between trait self-control and OCB and the mediating role of consideration for future consequence. METHOD: Four hundred and ninety-four Chinese employees (275 men, 219 women) took part in the study. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures online that assessed trait self-control, tendencies of consideration of future consequence, and organizational citizenship behavior. Path analysis was conducted and bootstrapping technique (N… = 5000), a resampling method that is asymptotically more accurate than the standard intervals using sample variance and assumptions of normality, was used to judge the significance of the mediation. RESULTS: Results of path analysis showed that trait self-control was positively related to OCB. More importantly, the “trait self-control-OCB” link was mediated by consideration of future consequence-future, but not by consideration of future consequence-immediate. CONCLUSIONS: Employees with high trait self-control engage in more organizational citizenship behavior and this link can be partly explained by consideration of future consequence-future.
Keywords: Pro-organizational behavior, self-regulation, time orientation, workplace