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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: Consumer-run businesses create job opportunities for people with psychiatric disabilities through the production of goods and services for sale to the community. The success of the consumer-run business is determined by the extent to which it is economically viable, owned and operated by persons with psychiatric disabilities, enhances the well being of its individual members and strengthens the consumer community. This paper provides an overview of the consumer-run business as it has emerged in the area of mental health. It describes the limitations of traditional rehabilitation services approaches which have served as a catalyst for the development of these businesses.…It outlines the key characteristics of the consumer-run business. Finally, the paper argues that the consumer-run business represents a fundamental shift away from vocational rehabilitation service models.
Keywords: Economic development, Employment, Psychiatric rehabilitation, Consumer-run business
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to describe the development and implementation of an on-site, behavior-based safety audit based on a safety program designed specifically to reduce injuries and fatalities in the residential construction industry. The audit was used to assess safety hazards and safety compliance on residential construction work sites. Safety behaviors were scored as all-or-none. A high score was related to high safety compliance. A total of 195 audits were performed on residential construction companies from varying trades. Analysis of mean total scores indicated that companies that had received some form of safety training scored significantly higher than…companies that had not received any (P<0.01). Analysis of mean total scores between company trades indicated that masonry/stucco application companies had significantly lower scores than most other trades represented (P<0.01). Challenges in designing, administering and analyzing the safety audits are discussed.
Abstract: Objectives: To design a program evaluation to determine the effectiveness of a novel safety and health program in residential construction. Study design: The overall program evaluation incorporates five separate studies with designs including: pre-test-post-test control group designs for determining program effects on safety culture and safe work behaviors, and cohort designs to assess longitudinal changes in injury rates and workers compensation costs. Results: Preliminary data from 252 respondents who completed a two-page questionnaire after attending an initial training session indicated that the innovative HomeSafe Program has been well received. Companies who have joined the program to date are…not representative of the broader population of businesses in the residential construction industry, as they generally are larger with heightened concerns for health and safety. Conclusions: Evaluating a safety and health program being introduced into the dynamic residential construction industry presents numerous challenges which are discussed.
Keywords: Injury prevention, Construction safety, Intervention research, Program evaluation, Workers compensation cost reduction
Abstract: In the absence of literature on upper extremity (UE) injury prevention programs, this study gathered data on educational programs currently available to enhance future programming. A telephone survey with written follow-up for verification and accuracy was used to collect descriptive data about the expected outcomes, educational content, program parameters and evaluation methods for UE injury prevention programs offered by nationally based companies. Six companies participated in the survey. Changes in employee behaviors and lifestyles were the most frequently expected outcomes. The educational content consistently contained information on anatomy and physiology and frequently contained risk factor information. Lectures were the primary…form of presentation, with limited opportunity for practice or problem solving. Two-hour programs were typically offered on site for groups of 20–25 participants at charges ranging from $100 to $300 per hour. The inconsistencies in current programming and insufficient definition of efficacy measures provide little guidance on how UE prevention programs should be designed.
Abstract: People with disabilities have lower work force participation rates than the general public. One factor that has been attributed to this is a lack of vocational programs for adolescents with disabilities. Thresholds is a vocational program designed to enhance the career development strategies of adolescents with physical disabilities. In a three-part series, participants reflect on who they are, clarify their career future and explore the world of work, and test out strategies for investigating career opportunities and addressing obstacles to career success. Following pilot testing, Thresholds was field tested with two groups of adolescents in two urban centres in Canada.…Findings suggested that this program could enhance the vocational decision-making abilities and self-appraisal skills of participants. Entry level characteristics of participants were critical in determining the extent of change. Feedback encouraged modifications to make the program more useful and effective.
Keywords: Career development, Transitional program, Program evaluation, Adolescents with physical disabilities
Abstract: The study investigated relations between the quality of the physical and psychosocial environments in Swedish schools and pupil-injury determinants as perceived by school principals. Data came from a representative sample of public-sector Swedish schools. Schools were divided into four classes on the basis of the types and magnitudes of environmental problems they experienced. Associations between problems and type of school, type of district, and degree of importance attributed to various pupil-injury determinants were measured. Two schools in three were classified as having no environmental problems, and one in 20 as having both types. Significant associations were found between type of…problem (environmental load), type of district and perceptions of some injury-inducing factors. Improvements to the school environment may benefit pupils' education and development as well as their safety and well-being. The study provides an aid for the setting of priorities in these respects.
Keywords: School safety, Pupil injury, Intentional injury, Physical violence
Abstract: This study focuses on a wide range of different aspects of memory functions trying to ascertain a possible profile of memory changes, which take place following long-term exposure to organic solvents. The research design was cross-sectional. Study population included 31 industrial painters who were exposed at work to organic solvents and 31 unexposed workers. Workers after long-term exposure to organic solvents showed significant decline in memory as indicated in all three standard memory tests (i.e. Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised, Benton Revised Visual Retention Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test). The results of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test showed…a negative correlation with exposure index indicating that the more intensive and longer the time of exposure was, the more impaired is the verbal memory. It was also found that the affect of age on memory was stronger among workers after long-term exposure to organic solvents compared to the unexposed workers.
Abstract: Musculoskeletal disorders are often suggested to be caused, in part, by poor postural behaviors that are associated with occupational demands. The inefficacy of conventional strategies to elicit postural correction has prompted many to seek alternative techniques such as the Feldenkrais Method® . The rapidly growing use of the Feldenkrais Method® by laypersons and professionals has been fueled by extravagant claims and data published in non-peer-reviewed sources, for the effectiveness of this technique has been poorly documented in peer-reviewed publications. Therefore the purpose of this review was to critically assess the literature on the Feldenkrais Method® in both juried…and non-juried sources. The results have generally indicated some improvement with Feldenkrais® interventions, however, these improvements are not nearly as large as suggested by the anecdotal claims. Unfortunately, most of the juried and non-juried findings and conclusions are questionable due to inadequately controlled studies and other serious methodological problems. As such, determination of the effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method® based on the literature is difficult at best, and the only justifiable conclusion is that more study is warranted.
Keywords: Posture, Feldenkrais Method®, Alternative medicine, Low back pain, Review
Abstract: Persons with mental retardation who possess applicable adaptive skills are usually able to obtain jobs in labor markets. However, some persons who show high scores with social and prevocational skills are unable to obtain jobs and the reasons for their unemployability are unknown. Twelve subjects with mild retardation who failed to obtain jobs were evaluated for their social and prevocational skills at the Tokyo Metropolitan Rehabilitation Center for the Physically and Mentally Handicapped. The evaluation was performed using the Social and Prevocational Information Battery-Revised which was developed by Halpen and Irvin. The results showed 12 subjects presented lower scores either…in the Job Search Skills area or in other areas in spite of their high scores on the Total Battery. Moreover, these subjects also showed behavior problems. The study suggests that those with high scores on the Total Battery, but low scores in Job Search Skills, show a tendency to fail to obtain a job in competitive job placement. It seems that these persons have adjustment problems and need special support services to secure their employability.