Technology and Health Care - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical effects of individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique in the treatment of tibial fractures. METHODS: Thirty-two cases of unilateral tibial fractures treated with individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique or conventional surgery were collected from October 2010 to October 2012. In the experimental group, the size of intramedullary nail, as well as the distance between the insertion point of tibial…intramedullary nail and the line perpendicular to the tibial plateau of the tibial tubercle were measured by digital technology preoperatively to select suitable intramedullary nail and appropriate insertion point. RESULTS: The operative time and bone healing time of the experimental group didn't change significantly (P > 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the number of X-ray examinations and the distance between actual and planned nail placement point between experimental group and control group. The excellent and good rate of functional recovery for the experimental and the control group was 100% and 87.50%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with the conventional surgery, individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique in tibial fractures might have superior outcomes.
Abstract: Involuntary human tremor due to clinical disorders may inhibit daily activities and can severely restrict lifestyle. Such tremor is associated with rhythmic movement of one or more body parts, where muscles contract and relax, causing twitching or sudden movement. Symptoms are most commonly the result of a psychological illness that causes the muscles to act involuntarily. Medical treatments to human tremor may pose harmful side effects, including hallucinations, and drugs used for treatment have varying degrees of success in reducing the symptoms of the illness. Our research provides a new, assistive technology that minimizes the effects of hand tremor, as…a substitute for drug-related therapy. The device is intended for use in creative art; a paint brush attachment, for application in painting. The engineering solution promises greater application for attachment to a variety of aids, such as for writing, eating or instructional, for device stabilization as used by persons suffering from hand tremor, irrespective of medical cause.
Keywords: Hand tremor, Parkinson's, active cancellation, activity aid, SMA wires, smart device
Abstract: Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy , a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and…refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The acetabular component orientation during total hip arthroplasty (THA) impacts future hip function and early revision. Correcting pelvic obliquity may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To correct pelvic obliquity in the lateral position by applying a gradienter and plumb during THA using fluoroscopy. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing THA were randomized and divided into 2 groups. In controls, acetabular components were placed using traditional methods. In experimental patients, acetabular components were placed after correcting pelvic obliquity. We measured pelvic obliquity and recorded intra-operative and post-operative abduction angles, comparing abduction angle bias between post-operative measurements and…intra-operation estimations. RESULTS: Before correction, the average pelvic obliquity was - 1.647 ∘ ± 4.512 ∘ in experimental patients. The average abduction angle in experimental patients was 42.685 ∘ ± 3.355 ∘ postoperatively, differing by 1.962 ∘ ± 1.515 ∘ from intra-operative estimates, while in control patients, it was 44.534 ∘ ± 4.844 ∘ postoperatively, differing by 4.244 ∘ ± 3.042 ∘ from intra-operative estimates. The bias of the abduction angle was much greater in control than in experimental patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The pelvic obliquity in the lateral position affects surgeon judgment during THA. By correcting pelvic obliquity with a gradienter and plumb, the abduction angle bias can be reduced.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Upper extremity (UE) motor function deficits are commonly noted in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and assessing it is challenging because of the lack of consensus regarding its definition. Instrumented biomechanical analysis of upper extremity movements can quantify coordination with different spatiotemporal measures and facilitate disability rating in MS patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify objective quantitative parameters for more accurate evaluation of UE disability and relate it to existing clinical scores. METHODS: Thirty-four MS patients and 24 healthy controls (CG) performed a finger-to-nose test as fast as possible and, in addition, clinical evaluation kinematic…parameters of UE were measured by using inertial sensors. RESULTS: Generally, a higher disability score was associated with an increase of several temporal parameters, like slower task performance. The time taken to touch their nose was longer when the task was fulfilled with eyes closed. Time to peak angular velocity significantly changed in MS patients (EDSS > 5.0). The inter-joint coordination significantly decreases in MS patients (EDSS 3.0–5.5). Spatial parameters indicated that maximal ROM changes were in elbow flexion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have revealed that spatiotemporal parameters are related to the UE motor function and MS disability level. Moreover, they facilitate clinical rating by supporting clinical decisions with quantitative data.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Assessment of the foot arch is an important element of posture examination. In clinical practice, different methods are used. Reliability and repeatability of the techniques raises many doubts. OBJECTIVE: Development and verification of our own, automated diagnostic algorithm for evaluation of the longitudinal arch of the foot with the use of the Zebris FDM-S dynamometric platform. METHODS: This paper presents selected footprints assessment methods and Zebris dynamometric platform to assess the longitudinal arch of the foot. RESULTS: The results were compared to standard plantography examination. The outcomes show high…correlation of the investigated parameters methods used. The ambiguity of classification criteria of foot arch was observed. CONCLUSIONS: 1/Examination confirmed strong linear correlation between the Arch Index results obtained during examinations on a stabilometric platform and plantography examination. 2/The proposed algorithm for AI evaluation using the Zebris FDM-S dynamometric platform enables simultaneous analysis of stabilometric and pedobarometric variables as well classifying the type of disorder arch longitudinal arch of the foot. 3/Qualitative analysis of the arch, based on plantography results and the Arch Index, shows inconsistency in results obtained with different methods. 4/The obtained results show further necessity to conduct more studies to develop methods of standardization of foot arch assessment.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Integration of the verticalization robot, Erigo, with functional electric stimulation and passive leg movements in the postacute rehabilitation of neurological patients could reduce the risk of secondary complications and improve functional outcomes (i.e. orthostatic hypotension, postural control and walking ability). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate and quantify changes in the postacute stage, mainly related to heart rate and blood pressure in functional recovery, postural parameters, walking ability and psychoemotional reactions, during training using the verticalization robot Erigo. METHODS: Six patients [three suffering from a stroke (ST) and three…with spinal cord injuries (SCI)] participated in 10 sessions of physical therapy with the verticalization robot during primary inpatient rehabilitation. Functional state changes were assessed using clinical tests before and after the treatment, and the loading tolerance during Erigo training was noted. RESULTS: In early rehabilitation, Erigo training was safe and effective at improving orthostatic tolerance, posture and positive emotional reactions in both the ST and SCI patients (P < 0.05). In addition, advanced technologies were more effective at boosting the orthostatic tolerance in SCI patients, while they were more effective at increasing the dynamic balance and walking ability in ST patients (P < 0.05).
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Transapical off-pump mitral valve (MV) repair is a novel minimally-invasive surgical technique, allowing to correct mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by chordae tendineae rupture. While numerical simulation of the MV structure has proven to be useful to evaluate the effects of the MV surgical repair techniques, no numerical simulation studies on the outcomes of transapical MV repair have been done up to now. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the transapical MV repair using finite element modeling and to determine the effect of the neochordal length on the function of the prolapsing MV.…METHODS: The reconstruction of the MV geometry based on the patient-specific data was performed. In order to simulate prolapse, chordae inserted into the middle segment of the posterior leaflet (P2) were ruptured. A total of four virtual transapical repairs using neochordae of different length were performed. The function of the MV before and after virtual repairs was simulated. RESULTS: The evaluation of the effect of the neochordal length on post-repair MV function showed that the length of the implanted neochordae has a significant impact on the correction of MR caused by chordae tendineae rupture. CONCLUSIONS: The presented results can improve the understanding of the effects of transapical MV repair.
Keywords: Mitral valve, prolapse, transapical, neochordae, finite element model
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Long sitting causes many health problems for people. Healthy sitting monitoring systems, like real-time pressure distribution measuring, is in high demand and many methods of posture recognition were developed. Such systems are usually expensive and hardly available for the regular user. OBJECTIVE: The aim of study is to develop low cost but sensitive enough pressure sensors and posture monitoring system. METHODS: New self-made pressure sensors have been developed and tested, and prototype of pressure distribution measuring system was designed. RESULTS: Sensors measured at average noise amplitude of a =…56 mV (1.12%), average variation in sequential measurements of the same sensor s = 17 mV (0.34%). Signal variability between sensors averaged at 100 mV (2.0%). Weight to signal dependency graph was measured and hysteresis calculated. Results suggested the use of total sixteen sensors for posture monitoring system with accuracy of < 1.5% after relaxation and repeatability of around 2%. CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate that hand-made sensor sensitivity and repeatability are acceptable for posture monitoring, and it is possible to build low cost pressure distribution measurement system with graphical visualization without expensive equipment or complicated software.