Technology and Health Care - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: Knowledge of the pressure distribution around human thorax in blast help to understand the injury mechanisms and their assessment. To investigate the transmission mechanism of the pressure on human thorax in blast, a three dimension surface model of human thorax was constructed in this work. To increase the precious of this model, tetrahedron element division method was applied to transfer the rough 3D surface model to hexahedral elements model. Using this model, the high pressure duration was computationally solved using numerical simulation of the hexahedral elements. Simulation results showed that the apex of lungs was subjected to the largest stress…in a blast. In order to verify this result, an animal experiment was performed on a dog. The animal experimental results was shown to have a same variation tendency with the calculation results based on our numerical model of human thorax, which made this model reliable for the blast injury research.
Keywords: Finite element model, human thorax, blast injury, numerical simulation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The acetabular component orientation during total hip arthroplasty (THA) impacts future hip function and early revision. Correcting pelvic obliquity may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To correct pelvic obliquity in the lateral position by applying a gradienter and plumb during THA using fluoroscopy. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing THA were randomized and divided into 2 groups. In controls, acetabular components were placed using traditional methods. In experimental patients, acetabular components were placed after correcting pelvic obliquity. We measured pelvic obliquity and recorded intra-operative and post-operative abduction angles, comparing abduction angle bias between post-operative measurements and…intra-operation estimations. RESULTS: Before correction, the average pelvic obliquity was - 1.647 ∘ ± 4.512 ∘ in experimental patients. The average abduction angle in experimental patients was 42.685 ∘ ± 3.355 ∘ postoperatively, differing by 1.962 ∘ ± 1.515 ∘ from intra-operative estimates, while in control patients, it was 44.534 ∘ ± 4.844 ∘ postoperatively, differing by 4.244 ∘ ± 3.042 ∘ from intra-operative estimates. The bias of the abduction angle was much greater in control than in experimental patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The pelvic obliquity in the lateral position affects surgeon judgment during THA. By correcting pelvic obliquity with a gradienter and plumb, the abduction angle bias can be reduced.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical effects of individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique in the treatment of tibial fractures. METHODS: Thirty-two cases of unilateral tibial fractures treated with individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique or conventional surgery were collected from October 2010 to October 2012. In the experimental group, the size of intramedullary nail, as well as the distance between the insertion point of tibial…intramedullary nail and the line perpendicular to the tibial plateau of the tibial tubercle were measured by digital technology preoperatively to select suitable intramedullary nail and appropriate insertion point. RESULTS: The operative time and bone healing time of the experimental group didn't change significantly (P > 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the number of X-ray examinations and the distance between actual and planned nail placement point between experimental group and control group. The excellent and good rate of functional recovery for the experimental and the control group was 100% and 87.50%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with the conventional surgery, individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique in tibial fractures might have superior outcomes.
Abstract: Involuntary human tremor due to clinical disorders may inhibit daily activities and can severely restrict lifestyle. Such tremor is associated with rhythmic movement of one or more body parts, where muscles contract and relax, causing twitching or sudden movement. Symptoms are most commonly the result of a psychological illness that causes the muscles to act involuntarily. Medical treatments to human tremor may pose harmful side effects, including hallucinations, and drugs used for treatment have varying degrees of success in reducing the symptoms of the illness. Our research provides a new, assistive technology that minimizes the effects of hand tremor, as…a substitute for drug-related therapy. The device is intended for use in creative art; a paint brush attachment, for application in painting. The engineering solution promises greater application for attachment to a variety of aids, such as for writing, eating or instructional, for device stabilization as used by persons suffering from hand tremor, irrespective of medical cause.
Keywords: Hand tremor, Parkinson's, active cancellation, activity aid, SMA wires, smart device
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Commercially available electroencephalogram devices suitable for brain computer interface research are now widely available for neurofeedback applications. OBJECTIVE: The authors of this study were interested in exploring the usability and acceptance of a commercially available electroencephalogram as a first step in introducing the technology, assessing patient receptivity, and acquiring preliminary clinical outcome data. METHODS: The study was conducted among active duty military service members referred for psychiatric treatment to the Walter Reed…National Military Medical Center's Psychiatry Continuity Service in Bethesda, MD. The investigators used a commercially available single channel dry electrode electroencephalogram device paired with software programs that focused on promoting mediation and attention. A satisfaction survey was completed at the completion of each session. RESULTS: One hundred and one (101) military patients completed a total of 273 brain computer interface sessions from May 2012 through June 2014. Participants overwhelmingly found the single channel electroencephalogram device easy to use (n=265/271, 97.8%). Following completion of the session participants most frequently reported "more focus" (n=85/271, 31.4%) followed by "more relaxed" (n=71/271, 26.2%), and "a sense of accomplishment" (n=44/271, 16.2%). DISCUSSION: Based on survey results gleaned from 273 sessions completed during the two year study, brain computer interface using a single channel electroencephalogram was overwhelming rated as user friendly. Over two-thirds of the individual sessions were rated as improving the person's focus, relaxation, or sense of accomplishment.
Abstract: Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy , a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and…refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.
Abstract: Dental stem cells isolated for human dental pulp are an excellent source for regenerative medicine and dentistry. Simulation of clinical scenario is one of the crucial challenges for evaluation of the efficacy of DPSCs in various regenerative therapies. In this study we evaluated the viability of DPSCs after treatment with artificial bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as the main component responsible for inducing inflammatory response in majority of the inflammatory conditions in clinical scenario. Although a number of studies have previously treated stem cells with LPS from bacteria, however the accuracy level of the outcome was not established. Here we have analyzed…the outcome using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inferences system (ANFIS) to predict the viability of human DPSCs after treatment with bacterial LPS.
Abstract: People residing in rural and remote areas (worldwide) have substantially worse outcome in early detection and diagnosis of glaucoma than those living in metropolitan areas. This gap can be reduced by improved glaucoma diagnosis activities in primary care, but there is little empirical evidence regarding use of tonometry in rural settings, or the expertise associated with quality of eye care. This article describes a feasibility study of a novel through-eyelid tonometer based on the use of an instrumented form of indentation and applanation tonometry.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The adrenal tumor will disturb the secreting function of adrenocortical cells, leading to many diseases. Different kinds of adrenal tumors require different therapeutic schedules. OBJECTIVE: In the practical diagnosis, it highly relies on the doctor’s experience to judge the tumor type by reading the hundreds of CT images. METHODS: This paper proposed an automatic computer aided analysis method for adrenal tumors detection and classification. It consisted of the automatic segmentation algorithms, the feature extraction and the classification algorithms. These algorithms were then integrated into a system and conducted on the graphic interface…by using MATLAB Graphic user interface (GUI). RESULTS: The accuracy of the automatic computer aided segmentation and classification reached 90% on 436 CT images. CONCLUSION: The experiments proved the stability and reliability of this automatic computer aided analytic system.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Survival rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remain poor. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is crucial for survival and feedback devices could improve its quality. OBJECTIVE: We investigated quality of chest compression when using the Cardio First Angel TM (CFA) feedback device compared to standard basic life support (BLS). The analysis focused on laymen. METHODS: Laymen without (n = 43) and with (n = 96) explanation of the device, medical students (n = 128) and…medical staff (n = 27) performed 60 seconds of standard versus assisted chest compression using the CFA on a resuscitation manikin. Compression frequency, depth and position were analyzed according to current guidelines. RESULTS: Laymen showed significantly better success rates regarding correct compression depth when using the CFA (23.3% vs. 55.8%, p = 0.004 and 25.0% vs. 52.1%, p < 0.001, laymen without and with explanation of the device, respectively). Medical students likewise improved (22.7% vs. 42.2%, p = 0.004). Hand positioning was 100% correct in all groups with the device. Improvement in frequency yielded by the CFA was more pronounced for probands with fears of contact (p = 0.02). The benefit of using the device did not differ significantly in laymen with or without explanation. CONCLUSIONS: Chest compression as performed by laymen was significantly improved with regard to compression depth when using the CFA for guidance and feedback. With the device, no cases of incorrect hand positioning occurred in any group.