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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: Pulsatile non-Newtonian blood flow in three distal end-to-side anastomoses models of prosthetic grafts has been analysed applying computer simulation. The anastomotic angles of the three-dimensional geometric models vary over 30°, 45° and 60°. The pulsatile inflow conditions in the graft remain unchanged. Numerical results are presented for the axial and the secondary flow velocity and the wall shear stress distribution. Further, the paths of fluid particles and the particle residence times are demonstrated by means of numerical flow visualization. The quantitative study shows complex flow and wall shear stress patterns with flow separation and strong secondary motion in the host…vessel and a weakly migrating flow stagnation point on the arterial floor during the entire pulse cycle in the models under consideration. The flow dynamic effects, which seem to be important in the development of intimal hyperplasia, are dependent on the anastomotic angle and increase with increasing angle.
Abstract: The performance of 14 jet nebulisers was assessed using 4 ml of 0.9% w/v saline and a flow-rate of 10 l/min. Nebulisation time (T), percentage mass of drug released as aerosol (P), rate of emission of aerosol (R) and mass median diameter of aerosol distribution (mmd) were recorded. The Side-Stream (Medic-Aid Ltd.), Sure-Mist (Unimed (UK) Ltd.) and Up-Draft (Hudson Inc.) had the lowest T (561 s, 618 s, 637 s respectively) and the Micro-Cirrus (Intersurgical Ltd.) and Up-Draft II (Hudson Inc.) had the highest T (2466 s, 1659 s respectively). The Micro-Neb III (Lifecare Ltd.), Side-Stream and Respirgard (Marquest Ltd.)…produced the highest P (68%, 67%, 66% respectively), the Sure-Mist and Up-draft had the lowest P (46.5%, 39% respectively). The Micro-Cirrus, Up-Draft II (Hudson Inc.) and Venticaire (S and W Vickers) had low R values (0.49, 0.801, 0.905 mg/min respectively), the Side-Stream had the highest R (4.08 mg/min). The Micro-Cirrus had a low mmd (1.04 m). The Pulmo-Neb (DeVilbiss Ltd.), Unineb (Unimed (UK) Ltd.) and Up-Draft had relatively high mmd (4.97 μm, 4.34 μm, 4.24 μm).
Abstract: Miniaturized integrated thin-film biosensors were developed for use in clinical analyzers and for in vivo applications. A glucose and a lactate sensor were integrated with a pH-sensor on a flexible substrate. Both enzyme sensors are based on the electrochemical measurement of H2 O2 produced by the enzymes glucoseoxidase and lactateoxidase respectively. The solid state pH-sensor uses a neutral carrier membrane. The intended application of this device is the monitoring of metabolic parameters in the intensive care unit and the operation theater and the use as a sensor module in clinical analyzers. The glucose-, lactate- and pH-sensor was tested in…buffer solutions and undiluted serum showing excellent performance.
Abstract: A diode laser with roughly 480 mW/cm2 emission at 776 nm was developed and engineered to obtain a uniform illumination of tumour cells deposited on Petri dishes having an external diameter of 5 cm. The efficacy of the apparatus in inducing photocytotoxic effects was successfully checked by irradiation of pigmented melanoma cells in the presence of a photosensitizer, Si(IV)-naphthalocyanine, having intense absorption bands at 776 nm. Our results open interesting prospects for extending photodynamic therapy to highly pigmented tumours.
Abstract: A device for quantitative morphometric analysis of tissue alterations caused by laser or electrosurgery was developed. The unit was designed for interactive evaluation of histological specimens obtained by experimental surgery. It consists of a microscope, a stepper-motor driven scanning stage, a digitizing tablet and a PC with software developed for this purpose. The depth of the incision, the width and the area of the coagulation zone can be measured independent of the microscopic magnification. Graphs and data can be exported in standard data-formats (ASCII, HPGL, DXF) for further processing. The application is demonstrated on experimental incisions with a CO2 -laser…in the oral mucosa of pigs; quantitative data are presented.
Abstract: For many applications in biomedical engineering, and especially for precise dosimetry in photodynamic therapy, it is essential to determine the absorption and scattering of light in biological tissue very precisely. At present it is not possible to measure the absorption and scattering coefficient separately by using an endoscopic sensor based upon the backscattering phenomenon. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem. We present a new model derived from Kubelka and Munk's theory, which is known to be suitable for the description of optical phenomena in tissue. Then we apply an algorithm often used in signal processing, the…Auto Regressive with eXternal input or ARX model, which allows us to determine both optical coefficients separately. A first validation is done by numerical simulation, then measurements with phantoms were done. The results of both tests prove the model to be reliable and effective.
Abstract: This paper will demonstrate the clinical application of a knowledge-based decision-support system called VentEx for ventilator management. VentEx has been implemented using a knowledge-based development tool on a PC under the Microsoft Windows multitasking environment. It is integrated into a computer aided ventilator system including the Siemens Elema Servo Ventilator 900 C equipped with a Servo Computer Module 990 and the CO2 analyser 930. The system provides advanced ventilator monitoring with expert advice concerning ventilator strategy and settings based on data from on-line monitoring. The knowledge base has been primarily validated and the system has been clinically tested by…the intensive care unit staff. Different approaches such as knowledge acquisition, representation and system integration have been outlined and discussed.