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Impact Factor 2020: 2.378
This interdisciplinary journal publishes papers relating the plasticity and response of the nervous system to accidental or experimental injuries and their interventions, transplantation, neurodegenerative disorders and experimental strategies to improve regeneration or functional recovery and rehabilitation.
Experimental and clinical research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant experimental or clinical relevance and interest to a multidisciplinary audience.
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: In the cranial cavity, a space-occupying mass such as epidural hematoma usually leads to compression of brain. Removal of a large compressive mass under the cranial vault is critical to the patients. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent epidural decompression of the rat primary somatosensory cortex affects the underlying microvessels, spiny stellate neurons and their afferent fibers. Methods: Rats received epidural decompression with preceding 1-week compression by implantation of a bead. The thickness of cortex was measured using brain coronal sections. The permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) …was assessed by Evans Blue and immunoglobulin G extravasation. The dendrites and dendritic spines of the spiny stellate neurons were revealed by Golgi— Cox staining and analyzed. In addition, the thalamocortical afferent (TCA) fibers in the cortex were illustrated using anterograde tracing and examined. Results: The cortex gradually regained its thickness over time and became comparable to the sham group at 3 days after decompression. Although the diameter of cortical microvessels were unaltered, a transient disruption of the BBB was observed at 6 hours and 1 day after decompression. Nevertheless, no brain edema was detected. In contrast, the dendrites and dendritic spines of the spiny stellate neurons and the TCA fibers were markedly restored from 2 weeks to 3 months after decompression. Conclusions: Epidural decompression caused a breakdown of the BBB, which was early-occurring and short-lasting. In contrast, epidural decompression facilitated a late-onset and prolonged recovery of the spiny stellate neurons and their afferent fibers. Show more
Keywords: Decompression, stellate neuron, thalamocortical fiber, BBB, dendritic spine, somatosensory cortex
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-17, 2021
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: Patients with brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) usually experience phantom sensations and phantom limb pain (PLP) in the deafferented limb. It has been suggested that evoking the sensation of touch in the deafferented limb by stimulating referred sensation areas (RSAs) on the cheek or shoulder might alleviate PLP. However, feasible rehabilitation techniques using this approach have not been reported. Objective: The present study sought to examine the analgesic effects of simple electrical stimulation of RSAs in BPA patients with PLP. Methods: Study 1: Electrical stimulation of RSAs for 60 minutes was conducted for six BPA patients …suffering from PLP to examine short-term analgesic effects. Study 2: A single case design experiment was conducted with two BPA patients to investigate whether electrical stimulation of RSAs was more effective for alleviating PLP than control electrical stimulation (electrical stimulation of sites on side opposite to the RSAs), and to elucidate the long-term effects of electrical stimulation of RSAs. Results: Study 1: Electrical stimulation of RSAs evoked phantom touch sensations in the deafferented limb, and significantly alleviated PLP (p < 0.05). Study 2: PLP was alleviated more after electrical stimulation on RSAs compared with control electrical stimulation (p < 0.05). However, the analgesic effects of electrical stimulation on RSAs were observed only in the short term, not in the long term (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Electrical stimulation of RSAs not only evoked phantom touch sensation but also alleviated PLP in the short term. The results indicate that electrical stimulation of RSAs may provide a useful practical rehabilitation technique for PLP. Future studies will be required to clarify the mechanisms underlying immediate PLP alleviation via electrical stimulation of RSAs. Show more
Keywords: Phantom limb pain, electrical stimulation, referred sensation, brachial plexus avulsion
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-10, 2021
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: Physical therapy with whole body vibration (WBV) following compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats restores density of perisomatic synapses, improves body weight support and leads to a better bladder function. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the combined treatment with WBV plus erythropoietin (EPO) would further improve motor, sensory and vegetative functions after SCI in rats. Methods: Severe compressive SCI at low thoracic level was followed by a single i.p. injection of 2,5μ g (250 IU) human recombinant EPO. Physical therapy with WBV started on 14th day after injury and continued over …a 12-week post injury period. Locomotor recovery, sensitivity tests and urinary bladder scores were analysed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after SCI. The closing morphological measurements included lesion volume and numbers of axons in the preserved perilesional neural tissue bridges (PNTB). Results: Assessment of motor performance sensitivity and bladder function revealed no significant effects of EPO when compared to the control treatments. EPO treatment neither reduced the lesion volume, nor increased the number of axons in PNTB. Conclusions: The combination of WBV + EPO exerts no positive effects on hind limbs motor performance and bladder function after compressive SCI in rats. Show more
Keywords: Spinal cord injury, whole-body vibration, erythropoietin, locomotor performance, sensitivity, bladder function, lesion volume, number of spared axons
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-16, 2021
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