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Impact Factor 2019: 1.839
This interdisciplinary journal publishes papers relating the plasticity and response of the nervous system to accidental or experimental injuries and their interventions, transplantation, neurodegenerative disorders and experimental strategies to improve regeneration or functional recovery and rehabilitation.
Experimental and clinical research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant experimental or clinical relevance and interest to a multidisciplinary audience.
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: The most common visual defect to follow a lesion of the retrochiasmal pathways is homonymous hemianopia (HH), whereby patients are blind to the contralesional visual field of each eye. Homonymous hemianopia has been studied in terms of its deleterious consequences on perceptual, cognitive and motor tasks as well as because it represents an interesting model of vision loss after a unilateral lesion of the occipital lobe. From a behavioral perspective, in addition to exhibiting a severe deficit in their contralesional visual field, HH patients can also exhibit dissociations between perception and awareness. Firstly , HH patients suffering from anosognosia …may be unaware of their visual field defect. Secondly , HH patients can present with unconscious visual abilities in the blind hemifield, a phenomenon referred to as blindsight . Thirdly , recent reports demonstrate that HH patients can suffer from a subtle deficit in their ipsilesional visual field that they are unaware of, a condition called sightblindness (i.e. the reverse case of ‘blindsight ’). Finally, HH patients may also exhibit visual hallucinations in their blind field; however, such patients are not systematically aware that their perceptions are unreal. In this review, we provide an overview of the visual-field losses in HH patients after a left or right unilateral occipital lesion. Furthermore, we explore the implications of these four phenomena for models of visual processing and rehabilitation of visual field defects in HH patients. Finally, in contrast to the traditional view that HH is solely a visual-field defect , we discuss why this deficit is an interesting model for studying the dissociation between perception and awareness. Show more
Keywords: Homonymous hemianopia, blindsight, anosognosia, hallucinations, awareness, occipital lobe
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-13, 2019
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: Around 253 million people worldwide suffer from irreversible visual damage. Numerous studies have been carried out in order to unveil the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) as a useful tool for rehabilitation for different visual conditions and pathologies. Objective: This systematic review aimed to 1) examine the current evidence of ES efficacy for the treatment of visual pathologies and 2) define the corresponding degree of the recommendation of different ES techniques. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE and Cochrane Library database to collect documents published between 2000 and 2018. For each study, Level …of Evidence of Effectiveness of ES as well as the Class of Quality for the treatment of different visual pathologies were determined. Results: Thirty-eight articles were included. Studies were grouped according to the pathology treated and the type of stimulation administered. The first group included studies treating pre-chiasmatic pathologies (age-related macular degeneration, macular dystrophy, retinal artery occlusion, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, optic nerve damage, and optic neuropathy) using pre-chiasmatic stimulation; the second group included studies treating both pre-chiasmatic pathologies (amblyopia, myopia) and post-chiasmatic pathologies or brain conditions (hemianopsia, brain trauma) by means of post-chiasmatic stimulation. In the first group, repetitive transorbital alternating current stimulation (rtACS) reached level A recommendation, and transcorneal electrical stimulation (tcES) reached level C. In the second group, both high-frequency random noise stimulation (hf-RNS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reached level C recommendation. Conclusions: Study’s findings suggest conclusive evidence for rtACS treatment. For other protocols results are promising but not conclusive since the examined studies assessed different stimulation parameters and endpoints. A comparison of the effects of different combinations of these variables still lacks in the literature. Further studies are needed to optimize existing protocols and determine if different protocols are needed for different diseases. Show more
Keywords: Electrical stimulation, transcorneal electrical stimulation (tcES), alternating current stimulation (rtACS), high-frequency random noise stimulation (hf-RNS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), visual damage, hypovision, transorbital alternating current stimulation (rtACS)
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-12, 2019
Authors: Zhang, Xiong | Tenerelli, Kevin | Wu, Suqian | Xia, Xin | Yokota, Satoshi | Sun, Catalina | Galvao, Joana | Venugopalan, Praseeda | Li, Chenyi | Madaan, Ankush | Goldberg, Jeffrey L. | Chang, Kun-Che
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: Glaucoma, the number one cause of irreversible blindness, is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which do not regenerate in humans or mammals after cell death. Cell transplantation provides an opportunity to restore vision in glaucoma, or other optic neuropathies. Since transplanting primary RGCs from deceased donor tissues may not be feasible, stem cell-derived RGCs could provide a plausible alternative source of donor cells for transplant. Objective: We define a robust chemically defined protocol to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into RGC-like neurons. Methods: Human embryonic stem cell lines (H7-A81 and …H9) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) were used for RGC differentiation. RGC immaturity was measured by calcium imaging against muscimol. Cell markers were detected by immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR. RGC-like cells were intravitreally injected to rat eye, and co-stained with RBPMS and human nuclei markers. All experiments were conducted at least three times independently. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with Tukey’s test with P value of <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: We detected retinal progenitor markers Rx and Pax6 after 15 days of differentiation, and the expression of markers for RGC-specific differentiation (Brn3a and Brn3b), maturation (synaptophysin) and neurite growth (β -III-tubulin) after an additional 15 days. We further examined the physiologic differentiation of these hESC-derived RGC-like progeny to those differentiated in vitro from primary rodent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) with calcium imaging, and found that both populations demonstrate the immature RGC-like response to muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist. By one week after transplant to the adult rat eye by intravitreal injection, the human RGC-like cells successfully migrated into the ganglion cell layer. Conclusions: Our protocol provides a novel, short, and cost-effective approach for RGC differentiation from hESCs, and may broaden the scope for cell replacement therapy in RGC-related optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. Show more
Keywords: Retinal ganglion cell, stem cell, cell transplant
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-10, 2019
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