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Impact Factor 2023: 2.8
This interdisciplinary journal publishes papers relating the plasticity and response of the nervous system to accidental or experimental injuries and their interventions, transplantation, neurodegenerative disorders and experimental strategies to improve regeneration or functional recovery and rehabilitation.
Experimental and clinical research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant experimental or clinical relevance and interest to a multidisciplinary audience.
Authors: Sabel, Bernhard A.
Article Type: Editorial
Abstract: Since the first issue of the academic journal Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience (RNN) was published in 1989, 40 volumes with a total of 1,550 SCI publications have helped advance basic and clinical sciences in the fields of central and peripheral nervous system rescue, regeneration, restoration and plasticity in experimental and clinical disorders. In this way RNN helped advance the development of a range of neuropsychiatric intervention across a broad spectrum of approaches such as drugs, training (rehabilitation), psychotherapy or neuromodulation with current stimulation. Today, RNN remains a focused, innovative and viable source of scientific information in the neurosciences …with high visibility in an ever changing world of academic publishing. Show more
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 40, no. 4-6, pp. 209-215, 2022
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: Agnosia for objects is often overlooked in neuropsychology, especially with respect to rehabilitation. Prosopagnosia has been studied more extensively, yet there have been few attempts at training it. The lack of training protocols may partially be accounted for by their relatively low incidence and specificity to sensory modality. However, finding effective rehabilitations for such deficits may help to reduce their impact on the social and psychological functioning of individuals. Objective: Our aim in this study was to provide clinicians and researchers with useful information with which to conduct new studies on the rehabilitation of object agnosia and …prosopagnosia. To accomplish this, we performed a systematic and comprehensive review of the effect of neuropsychological rehabilitation on visual object and prosopagnosia. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. In addition, the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) scales were used to assess the quality of reporting. Results: Seven articles regarding object agnosia, eight articles describing treatments for prosopagnosia, and two articles describing treatments for both deficits were included. Conclusions: In the light of the studies reviewed, treatments based on analysis of parts seem effective for object agnosia, while prosopagnosia appears to benefit most from treatments relying on holistic/configural processing. However, more attempts at rehabilitation of face and object agnosia are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these processes and possible rehabilitations. Moreover, a publication bias could mask a broader attempt to find effective treatments for visual agnosia and leaving out studies that are potentially more informative. Show more
Keywords: Neuropsychological rehabilitation, cognitive treatment, agnosia, prosopagnosia, face perception, visual perception
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 40, no. 4-6, pp. 217-240, 2022
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Many psychiatric and neurological conditions are associated with cognitive impairment for which there are very limited treatment options. Brain stimulation methodologies show promise as novel therapeutics and have cognitive effects. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), known more for its related transient adverse cognitive effects, can produce significant cognitive improvement in the weeks following acute treatment. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for major depression and has acute cognitive effects. Emerging research from controlled studies suggests that repeated TMS treatments may additionally have cognitive benefit. ECT and TMS treatment cause neurotrophic changes, although whether these are associated with cognitive …effects remains unclear. Transcranial electrical stimulation methods including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) are in development as novel treatments for multiple psychiatric conditions. These treatments may also produce cognitive enhancement particularly when stimulation occurs concurrently with a cognitive task. This review summarizes the current clinical evidence for these brain stimulation treatments as therapeutics for enhancing cognition. Acute, or short-lasting, effects as well as longer-term effects from repeated treatments are reviewed, together with potential putative neural mechanisms. Areas of future research are highlighted to assist with optimization of these approaches for enhancing cognition. Show more
Keywords: Cognition, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial alternating current stimulation
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 40, no. 4-6, pp. 241-259, 2022
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a severe loss of visual function caused by damage to the visual cortex or its afferents, often as a consequence of hypoxic insults during birth. It is one of the leading causes of vision loss in children, and it is most often permanent. Objective: Several studies have demonstrated limited vision restoration in adults who trained on well-controlled psychophysical tasks, after acquiring CVI late in life. Other studies have shown improvements in children who underwent vision training. However, little is known about the prospects for the large number of patients who acquired CVI …at birth but received no formal therapy as children. Methods: We, therefore, conducted a proof-of-principle study in one CVI patient long after the onset of cortical damage (age 18), to test the training speed, efficacy and generalizability of vision rehabilitation using protocols that had previously proven successful in adults. The patient trained at home and in the laboratory, on a psychophysical task that required discrimination of complex motion stimuli presented in the blind field. Visual function was assessed before and after training, using perimetric measures, as well as a battery of psychophysical tests. Results: The patient showed remarkably rapid improvements on the training task, with performance going from chance to 80% correct over the span of 11 sessions. With further training, improved vision was found for untrained stimuli and for perimetric measures of visual sensitivity. Some, but not all, of these performance gains were retained upon retesting after one year. Conclusions: These results suggest that existing vision rehabilitation programs can be highly effective in adult patients who acquired CVI at a young age. Validation with a large sample size is critical, and future work should also focus on improving the usability and accessibility of these programs for younger patients. Show more
Keywords: Cortical visual impairment, visual rehabilitation, motion perception training
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 40, no. 4-6, pp. 261-270, 2022
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: Gait training may lead to functional brain changes in Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, there is a lack of studies investigating structural brain changes after gait training in PD. Objective: To investigate structural brain changes induced by 4 weeks of gait training in individuals with PD. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging and structural T1 images were acquired in PD group before and after robot-assisted gait training or treadmill training, and in healthy control group. Tract-based spatial statistics and tensor-based morphometry were conducted to analyze the data. The outcome of gait training was assessed by gait speed and …dual-task interference of cognitive or physical tests of the 10-meter walking test representing gait automaticity. The associations between structural brain changes and these outcomes were investigated using correlation analysis. Results: A total of 31 individuals with PD (68.5±8.7 years, the Hoehn & Yahr stage of 2.5 or 3) and 28 healthy controls (66.6±8.8 years) participated in this study. Compared to the controls, PD group at baseline showed a significant increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right forceps minor and bilateral brainstem and reduced radial diffusivity (RD) in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, as well as the expanded structural volumes in the several brain areas. After gait training, FA increased in the left internal capsule and it decreased in the left cerebellum Crus I, while the structural volume did not change. The increased FA in the left internal capsule positively correlated with the baseline gait speed and negatively correlated with gait speed improvement; moreover, the decreased FA in the left cerebellum Crus I negatively correlated with the baseline gait speed during the cognitive task. Conclusions: Gait training induces white matter changes in the brain of individuals with PD, which suggests the improvement of brain structural pathology to mitigate the impact of neurodegenerative consequences. Show more
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, diffusion tensor imaging, brain plasticity, follow-up studies, intervention study, magnetic resonance imaging
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 40, no. 4-6, pp. 271-288, 2022
Article Type: Retraction
Citation: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 40, no. 4-6, pp. 289-290, 2022
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