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Nutrition and Aging is an international forum for research on nutrition as a means of promoting healthy aging. It is particularly concerned with the impact of nutritional interventions on the metabolic and molecular mechanisms which modulate aging and age-associated diseases, including both biological responses on the part of the organism itself and its micro biome. Results emanating from both model organisms and clinical trials will be considered.
With regards to the latter, the journal will be rigorous in only accepting for publication well controlled, randomised human intervention trials that conform broadly with the current EFSA and US FDA guidelines for nutritional clinical studies. The journal will publish research articles, short communications, critical reviews and conference summaries, whilst open peer commentaries will be welcomed.
Abstract: Aging is a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases attributed to the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Reduced bioavailability of endothelial- nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and its product NO is considered the key mechanism mediating reduced endothelial function with aging. Vascular oxidative stress and inflammation increase with age and Western diets rich in fat, specifically saturated fat, refined carbohydrates and limited plant foods increase oxidative stress and inflammation. In aged endothelium, Western diets can augment endothelial dysfunction because functional changes have already likely begun. This review discusses possible mechanisms responsible for endothelial dysfunction in aging and…the links between endothelial aging and Western diets.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Healthy aging is associated with functional declines in mobility and cognition among both humans and non-human animals. OBJECTIVE: This study combines human measures of mobility and cognition to develop a test battery for evaluating the effects of dietary supplements among older adults. Selected measures parallel behavior tasks used to assess the efficacy of dietary interventions in rodent models of aging. METHODS: Seventy six healthy adults, between the ages of 21 and 75, completed a 1 hour mobility and cognition assessment. Postural sway and spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured using a Zebris™ instrumented treadmill system. A computer-based virtual water maze…and the trail-making test were used to assess spatial memory and executive function, respectively. RESULTS: Sway velocity during quiet standing increased with age. Preferred gait speed declined with age and changes in the gait cycle reveal an age-related increase in total double support during normal walking. In the virtual water maze, latency to locate a hidden or visible platform increased with age; meanwhile, probe test performance declined with age. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy adults show age-related declines in measures of mobility and cognition. These measures are a useful tool for translating research on dietary interventions to older adults.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Metabolic disturbance is associated with risk for neurodegeneration, and cerebral glucose hypometabolism is prominent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ketone metabolism can compensate for glucose hypometabolism and confers other benefits pertinent to neurodegeneration, among them reduction of oxidative stress and AD pathological factors, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic intervention. In a prior controlled trial, we showed that six weeks' carbohydrate restriction induced ketogenesis and produced improvements in metabolic parameters and memory performance in older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Those benefits were attributed to the correction of hyperinsulinemia and to the presumed enhancement of cerebral bioenergetic function associated…with ketone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of dietary ketosis on cerebral metabolites in older adults with MCI. METHODS: We enrolled a sample of five MCI participants in a ketogenic dietary regimen and performed pre- and post-intervention proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate changes in neurochemical metabolites. We also assessed cognitive function and metabolic and anthropometric factors. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in myo-inositol (p = 0.02) and trends for increases in N-acetyl-aspartate (p = 0.09) and creatine + phosphocreatine (p = 0.11) after six weeks on the ketogenic regimen. Working memory (p = 0.01) and long-term memory (p = 0.07) performances also improved. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers novel, preliminary evidence of cerebral bioenergetic enhancement with mild dietary ketosis in aging humans. Further investigation in controlled trials is warranted to assess the preventive and treatment implications of this intervention for age-related memory decline and dementia.
Abstract: On exploratory class missions, such as a voyage to Mars, astronauts will be exposed to doses and types of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit where the space shuttle and International Space Station operate. Astronauts who participate in exploratory class missions outside the magnetic field of the earth will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays which are composed of alpha particles, protons and particles of high energy and charge. Exposure to cosmic rays produces changes in neuronal and behavioral functioning which are characteristic of aged organisms. As has been observed with aging, maintaining rats on antioxidant berry…diets can prevent/ameliorate the radiation-induced changes in neural and behavioral function. As such, these diets have the potential to provide protection to astronauts from the deleterious effects of exposure to space radiation.