Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 5, issue 1
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Energy, climate change, food security, and health care are the major challenges humanity is facing the world over. Bamboo grass, which can grow successfully on wasteland with minimal agronomical inputs, would help in meeting these challenges to a significant extent. Generally, bamboos, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae are much known for their contribution mainly to the housing sector in view of certain unique characteristics. Although the bamboo shoot used in tribal diet is a very old phenomenon, yet the food potential of the bamboo shoot per se remains subsided and unexplored.…Literature on the food potential of bamboo shoots is scattered and has been realized in a reductionistic manner. Few studies reveal its richness in nutritive components like protein and fiber content and thus the bamboo shoot could be helpful in mitigating the problem of malnutrition. This paper therefore tries to reflect light on the bamboo shoot as a food resource with a holistic perspective. Exotic food products and traditional dishes of bamboo shoots being eaten at different locations have been compiled and discussed. The toxic content in different bamboo shoot species studied by various investigators is presented in this paper too. The nutritional values of different species of bamboo shoots and the effect of processing methods on its nutritive quality have also been looked into. The feasibility of integrating raw/processed bamboo shoot in the modern diet and lifestyle for enhancing food-nutritional security is also explored.
Abstract: The economic future of a country depends largely on the vitality of its new generations: they need to be healthy enough to lead. However, facts and high prevalence of obesity epidemic demonstrate that the individual choice approach towards adequate nutritional behaviour and exercise is not working, and governments around the globe are stepping into halt and hopefully reverse the trend towards a future without childhood overweight. Figuring out how best to proceed is an issue that has been raised also in Switzerland, a country known for its excellent living conditions and healthy environment, and measures are being actively implemented by…cantons, addressing healthier lifestyles. However, solving the obesity epidemic requires implementation of a comprehensive program that, beyond cantonal and local endeavours, could use heavier legislative and regulatory authority from the Swiss government to ensure that there are no gaps left in the development, test and propagation of national policies concerning schools curricula, food labelling and prices. Nevertheless, encouraging signs are coming from scientific reports supporting the levelling off of overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents from around the world, including Switzerland. There is optimism about the future, but also certainty about the critical role that advocacy, by all involved parts, plays to maintain high standards in goals to achieve, and shared responsibility to prevent conflict of interests among governments, industry and consumers.
Abstract: Food quality and safety is an area of growing worldwide concern on account of its association with health. Food processing offers a suitable approach to deal with the current scenario of poor quality and unsafe food prevalent in the developing countries. Food legumes are widely consumed over the world on account of their nutritive value. The effects of common domestic processing techniques like soaking, germination (1, 2 and 3 day) and cooking (microwave, pressure and ordinary cooking) were studied on the carbohydrate, crude protein, mineral and vitamin content of chickpea. The effect of these processing techniques was also studied on…the fate of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites in chickpea. It was observed that germination (1st day) leads to significant increases in the sugars, crude protein, the increase in Zn and Fe are high on day 1 with marginal increases in Mn and the losses in K, Ca, Mg and P are low on day 1. Even the contents of the riboflavin and niacin are the highest as compared to the other days. Germination (day 1) also resulted in almost complete elimination of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites in chickpea so germination of legumes is a simple, cost effective, suitable process for addressing the concerns of food quality and safety especially for rural populace of developing countries.
Abstract: The chemical composition of four olive and four argan oils marketed in Morocco as extra-virgin oils was compared. Oxidative stability was also determined initially under accelerated conditions. Composition and oxidative stability of olive oils was found to be fluctuant and variety-dependent, whereas argan oil presents a profile that should more likely satisfy consumers eager to know the precise composition and nutritional property of their food.
Abstract: Main objective of this research work was to develop yoghurt like fermented dairy product by replacing milk fat with enzymatically transesterified palm olein. Milk fat was replaced with enzymatically transesterified palm olein at different levels, i.e., T1 (1.5% enzymatically transesterified palm olein and 2% milk fat), T2 (2.5% enzymatically transesterified palm olein and 1% milk fat), T3 (3.5% enzymatically transesterified palm olein and 0% milk fat). All these treatments were compared with a control T0 which did not contain any vegetable fat replacement (3.5% milk fat). Yoghurt like fermented dairy product was prepared from buffalo milk…and stored for 21 days at 4°C. The addition of enzymatically transesterified palm olein on physico-chemical analysis and sensory characteristics were determined at the interval of 7 days. Incorporation of palm olein up to T1 level did not have any adverse effect on compositional attributes, pH and acidity of yoghurt like fermented dairy product, flavor, texture and overall acceptability scores.
Abstract: Malnutrition remains common but unrecognized and untreated problem worldwide particularly in Iranian hospitals. Malnutrition has a high clinical and economic impact reflected by an increased morbidity and mortality and prolonged hospital stay. The main aim of this study was to assess the nutritional state of patients on admission to four University-affiliated hospitals including two general, one oncology and one psychiatric) in Mashhad using of Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). 404 adults aged more than 18 who were admitted to the Mashhad teaching hospitals were screened for malnutrition using MUST. The mean age was 44 ± 18 years (range 18–90 years)…(188 females, 216 males). The nutritional status assessment was performed within 48 h of admission and the prevalence of malnutrition was reported 48.5%. (high risk 38.6%, medium risk 9.9%). In total, 45.2% (n = 70) of female patients had a MUST score of 2 (high risk) when compared with 51.5% (n = 35) of males. Mental disorder patients (82%) and medical ward patients (60.6%) had the highest prevalence of malnutrition. Results showed that malnutrition is a common problem affecting more than 48% of patients in this hospital-wide study. Results warrant paying more attention to malnourished patients.
Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not uncommon in non-obese people. We examined the independent predictors of NAFLD in a group of non-obese and non-diabetic men and women in Rasht, Iran. Sixty-one adults aged 38.4 ± 8.4 years (32 men and 29 women) with body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2 and non-diabetic with clinical features of NAFLD who visited our center between 2007 and 2009 were compared to 147 non-obese, non-diabetic and normal liver subjects (40 men and 107 women) aged 40.8 ± 9.1. Data on blood lipids, anthropometry, fasting blood glucose, exercise, and educational levels were gathered using…a questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis revealed that weight gain during adulthood [OR = 1.90 (95% CI = 1.03–1.84), P < 0.04] and high serum triglyceride levels [OR = 1.19 (95% CI = 1.09–1.28), P < 0.0001] were independent predictors of NAFLD in this group of non-obese subjects. BMI, educational levels, gender, and habitual physical activity were not independently related to NAFLD in this study. These data suggest that weight gain after 20 years of age rather than BMI and high levels of triglyceride may serve as screening tool for NAFLD in clinical practice in this population. In nutritional management of these apparently normal weight subjects with NAFLD modest weight loss is necessary.
Abstract: The present study was planned to study extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) activity in 30 preeclamptic women, 30 normotensive pregnant and 30 non-pregnant women. EC-SOD activity was lower in normotensive pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant women (p < 0.05). The activity was still lower in preeclamptic women as compared to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women (p < 0.001). These findings indicate a role of EC-SOD in modulating nitric oxide-dependent relaxation of the uterus and the development of hypertension as a predominant symptom in preeclampsia.
Abstract: The intent of the authors was to evaluate the possible presence of psychopathological aspects in people with metabolic syndrome. Through a research protocol that involved a thorough physical examination, a psychological clinical interview and the administration of psychodiagnostic tests, the authors highlighted the significative incidence of depressive disorders and/or anxiety in people with metabolic syndrome. This area of investigation in a clinical setting is configured as a territory still unexplored; the authors point out, therefore, the need for further study and for the development of intervention protocols providing the synergistic presence of different specialists with specific skills.
Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is common, though its prevalence varies depending on the characteristics of the study population and the reference values adopted. We have analyzed the data of 25(OH)D levels collected in our laboratory to define the status in an outpatient population and the best cut-point for clinical practice.
Abstract: We evaluated if a nutritional supplement containing arginine, glutamine, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate commonly used to improve the healing of diabetic foot ulcers had any effect on the kidney function in the diabetic patients. We hypothesized that the action on the skin may be non-specific and that the supplement might also act on other structural elements of the kidney. We compared the evolution of the blood creatinine and of the overnight albumin excretion in 16 diabetic subjects with mild to moderate nephropathy 6 months prior to and during the 6 months of treatment. The creatinine level remained stable during the treatment, while…microalbuminuria decreased to nearly 50% of the initial value (p < 0.000).
Abstract: Malnutrition is frequent among cancer patients and must be evaluated before the surgery. Immunonutrition is a nutritional support therapy focused on modulating the inflammatory response, stimulating the immunology, maintaining intestinal trophicity and reducing overall postoperative morbidity, particularly infectious complications. Immunonutrition is indicated in elective digestive surgical oncology, and the length of administration depends on the presence or not of malnutrition. This treatment is now a standard of care in France, because the recommendations of the French Society of Digestive Surgery (2005) and its reimbursement by the National Health System.