Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 3, issue 1
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Tomatoes are a very important part of the Mediterranean diet. The possibility of a much healthier tomato option represents a great opportunity for the population to enhance their daily diet. Folate is an important bioactive compound for human health and increasing folate content in tomatoes can contribute to reduce some of the problems associated with this deficiency. In this review, the new option of a biofortified tomato produced by the use of DNA recombinant technology will be discussed in terms of food safety of the new genetically modified product. The possibility to increase folate content has been recently demonstrated through…two modifications: the first was based on the development of a synthetic form of engineered GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCHI) (based on mammalian synthesis), which was introduced in the plants to prevent the retroinhibition of the GCHI (folate precursor) in plants; the second was based on the pteridine-overproduction trait expressing the aminodeoxychorismate synthase (AtADCS) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetically modified tomatoes, able to accumulate an average of 25-fold more folate than controls, were produced. These fruits could provide the complete adult daily requirement in less than one standard serving. The modification also resulted in a 20 times higher accumulation of pteridines and PABA as compared with the wild-type control. The possible risks and benefits derived from the GM modification of the tomato, and the safety of the final product for consumers will be discussed.
Abstract: Lipids and glucides, the energetic compounds in artificial nutrition solutions, are not only “fuel” but possess other biologic functions which may influence disease evolution. Energy-yielding solutions should cover the patient's metabolic needs but should also limit any inflammatory and oxidative stress or impairment of the immune system. This paper provides a concise overview of the clinical and metabolic properties of the most common energetic substrates employed both in enteral and parenteral nutrition.
Keywords: Lipids, Glucides, Parenteral and enteral nutrition, Clinical effects
Abstract: Our manuscript shows that honey has a variety of positive nutritional and health effects. It contains at least 181 substances, is a supersaturated solution of sugars, and contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements, vitamins, aroma compounds and polyphones. This article reviews reports on the use of honey in the treatment of human disorders, which are supported by clinical tests and published in medical journals. First, the composition of honey is described, followed by its physiological and nutritional effects. Finally, the influence of honey on gastroenterology and cardiovascular effects is illustrated.
Abstract: Zinc and selenium have been shown to singly act in normalising glycaemia and are also postulated to possess insulin-like functions. Supplementation with their combination in the diets of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes was investigated with the aim of investigating their effects on glucose homeostasis and their antioxidant properties on the liver and kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-five rats were randomly assigned to five groups and four groups were made diabetic by the administration of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate, after which three diabetic groups were fed with diets supplemented with zinc, selenium and a combination of the…two. Zinc, selenium and the combination significantly reduced blood glucose concentration, restored hepatic functions, increased the antioxidant status of the diabetic rats and reduced lipid peroxidation in both the hepatic and renal tissues. It was concluded that supplementation with zinc, selenium and the combination facilitated glucose uptake, prevented oxidative stress, reduced lipid peroxidation and preserved hepatic function in diabetes.
Abstract: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, EC 18.104.22.168), as the detoxifying enzymes, play an important protective role in embryonic tissues. The GSTs of eleventh-day chick embryonic liver were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with an overall yield of 31%. The SDS-PAGE analysis of chick embryonic liver GSTs resolved in to three bands, CL1, CL2 and CL3, with relative molecular weights of 27.0, 26.0 and 25.0 kDa respectively. On 72 hours of treatment with acrylamide (AC) (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg) the specific activities of GSTs with CDNB, pNBC, EPNP, BSP, Δ5 A and pNPA increased significantly. Total GPx levels were decreased with CHP in…liver samples. Immunoblot analysis of AC-treated liver samples showed a dose-dependent increase in the induction of GSTs. CL1 of theta class, CL2 of Mu class and CL3 of alpha class were induced with AC treatment. The theta, mu and alpha classes induced by AC might inhibit the initiation of carcinogenesis.
Keywords: Glutathione S-transferases, Acrylamide, Substrate specificities, Chick embryonic liver, Western blot
Abstract: Food legumes are widely consumed all over the world as these are good sources of dietary proteins, carbohydrates and minerals. Common domestic processing techniques like soaking, germination and cooking enhance the digestibility and nutritive value of legumes. The effects of soaking, germination (1, 2 and 3 day) and cooking (microwave, pressure and ordinary cooking) were studied on the carbohydrates, crude protein, mineral and vitamin content of soybean. Germination (2nd day) leads to significant increases in the sugar, crude protein, Ca, Cu, Mn, Zn, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid content. Microwave cooking resulted in greater retention of minerals and vitamins as…compared to pressure cooking and ordinary cooking. Based on the results, germination (day 2) for soybean should be popularised as a simple process for naturally fortifying food with essential minerals and vitamins. While amongst cooking methods, microwave cooking could be suggested for soybean preparation.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the long-term effects of psyllium husk and guar gum supplementation on metabolic syndrome (MS) components. We randomised 141 MS patients to soluble psyllium husk powder or guar gum 3.5 g t.i.d. to be taken 20 min before the main 2 meals, or to a standard diet for a cumulative period of 6 months. Both fibres significantly improved body mass index (−7.2% vs. −6.5%), fasting plasma glucose (−27.9% vs. −11.1%) and insulin (−20.4% vs. −10.8%), HOMA Index (−39.2% vs. −16.7%), glycated haemoglobin (−10.4% vs. −10.3%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−7.9% vs. −8.5%) and…apolipoprotein B (−10.5% vs. −5.6%), after 6 months of treatment. Only the psyllium supplementation exerted a significant improvement on plasma triglyceride concentration (−13.3%) and systolic (−3.9%) and diastolic blood pressure (−2.6%). No significant difference was observed regarding the standard diet group in comparison to the baseline. On the basis of our data, psyllium could be more strongly indicated for patients that have to reduce a large number of cardiovascular risk factors, while guar gum could be more rapidly efficacious in strengthening the effect of diets aimed at reducing body weight.
Abstract: This study was conducted on sheep's milk to determine the fat composition in flocks of different breeds (Suffolk, Fabrianese, Sopravvissana, Sarda) living in Marche region areas (central Italy). Samples were collected from December to July and the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and lipid peroxidation status were analysed. The results show high levels of saturated fatty acids (SAT) for each period of the year considered. The amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) is three to five times higher than polyunsaturated ones (PUFA). An increase in PUFA content is present in samples collected in May and July. The content of cis-9,trans-11-…and trans-10,cis-12-CLA isomers increases in May, reaching the highest values in July. The results reported here are of importance since the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in cheese will depend on the CLA content of milk itself and this should be taken into account due to the beneficial effects of CLA isomers on human health.
Abstract: The literature published in the last decade has variously assessed the possible association between coeliac disease (CD) and other chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and psoriasis (Ps). This study included a total of 93 patients (15 with RA, 27 with PsA and 51 with Ps). None from the group with RA and PsA were positive to the test, while 3 of the patients belonging to the group with Ps tested positive. All three underwent intestinal biopsy, which confirmed the presence of CD. Our data revealed a higher prevalence of CD in patients with…Ps compared to the general population: 3:51 patients (5.88%) vs. 1:184 resident (0.54%). It can be affirmed that screening for CD is not routinely recommended for patients suffering from RA and PsA.
Abstract: We treated 96 obese diabetic subjects (BMI 33–44 kg/m2 ) with a “package of interventions” including therapeutic education, regular follow-up at 15-day intervals and a hypocaloric diet of 60% of their daily needs, 20% at breakfast and 40% at each meal. At the beginning of the observation and after 3 and 6 months we checked certain baseline characteristics. All the subjects performed self blood glucose measurement (SMBG) 3 or 5 times a day and kept a log. After the first 3 months of observation (Phase 1) 18 were lost to follow-up and 40 who obtained a weight loss >5% of…their initial BW continued on their diet (G−). The remaining 38 substituted a nutritionally rich hypocaloric meal (Glucerna® SR) for 206 calories of one of the main meals (G+). During the following three months (Phase 2) all were treated with the package of interventions. The subjects treated with Glucerna® SR had a more consistent weight loss and a more remarkable improvement of the parameters under evaluation, with greater statistical significance. With the logistic regression analysis the residual variance not explained by the weight loss was greater for the G+ group, which implies the existence of an additional beneficial effect of the formula used. Of great relevance is the observation that the G+ group had a reduction of the standard deviation of the SMBG data, thus suggesting a greater stability of the BG values in this group.