Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 16, issue 2
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius ) inhabit not only arid areas but are among common domestic animals that are normally kept for numerous uses. It’s raw milk (CM) is believed to have exceptional nutraceutical value in addition to it’s other uses similar to camel itself. This study aimed to evaluate hypotensive efficacy of raw CM within context of chemical induced hypertension model in albino rats. Rats received the chemical; L-NAME (50 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o.) and amlodipine (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) as negative and positive controls for 4 weeks. Rats of treatment group received concurrently L-NAME (50 mg/kg body weight /day, p.o.) and raw milk…of camel at (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.) respectively for 4 weeks. Result showed significant decrease (p < 0.001) in treatment relative to negative control in all measured parameters viz systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures in accordance to the used dosages. Also elevated levels of liver/kidney biomarkers in negative control became reduced compared to normal and positive controls courtesy of CM treatment. In conclusion, obtained data revealed CM to be effective in controlling hypertension. The bioactive constituents present in CM appeared likely to be responsible for the observed effect of antioxidant action and ACE inhibition. Evidence is thus provided from research findings that raw CM can afford efficient hypotensive effect.
Keywords: Raw camel milk (CM), hypotensive, milk composition, ACE inhibition
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Brown rice contains nutrients that significantly reduce the incidence of obesity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of brown rice as a functional food on the reduction of obesity incidence through the pathways of gut microbiota dysbiosis. METHODS: In this study, we used white rats (Rattus norvegicus albus ), which were divided into five groups, i.e., Normal, High fructose feed diet (HFFD), HFFD + Brown rice (BR) I, HFFD + BR II, HFFD + BR III. The parameters were SCFA concentration, FFAR3 expression, and Firmicutes– Bacteroidetes ratio. RESULTS: The rats fed HFFD + BR III diet with a high intake of brown…rice resulted in a greater reduction in abdominal circumference. The group of rats fed the HFFD had a higher BFI than the other rats. The brown rice intervention reduced the Lee index, a higher concentration of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and led to a higher reduction in Firmicutes– Bacteroidetes ratio. The brown rice intervention also increased the FFAR3 expression in the rat ileal L cells. CONCLUSIONS: Brown rice has significant benefits for reducing obesity, as evidenced by the improvement in the abdominal circumference, Lee index, and BFI through the improvement of intestinal dysbiosis and increase in SCFA concentration and FFAR3 expression.
Keywords: Brown rice, FFAR3, gut microbiota, obesity, SCFA
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A large number of children and adolescents worldwide suffer from physiological vitamin D (VD) deficiency, which has been associated with sun exposure and, consequently, the risk of developing various autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the association of the disease with VD intake and sun exposure has yet to be explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a food frequency questionnaire and a 24-hour food recall survey, using “Ciqual table 2016” in 335 type 1 diabetic and age- and gender-matched healthy Algerian school children and adolescents from sunny Saharan and relatively less sunny Northern regions, aged between…5 and 19 years. RESULTS: Both dietary VD intake and VD levels were similar in T1D patients when comparing northern and southern regions (for both comparisons, p > 0.05). Neither sun exposure nor VD intake was associated with the disease (respectively, relative risk [RR] = 1.050, p = 0.680; RR = 1.082, p = 1.000. For Cochran and Mantel-Haenszel analysis; RR = 0.841, p = 0.862). VD intake showed a significant difference between diabetics and non-diabetics in the sunny region (p = 0.022). Additionally, significant differences were found between normal and T1D schoolboys (p = 0.038), and when comparing the two groups according to the dry areas (p = 0.016). Moreover, in contrast to circulating VD levels, which were lower in T1D patients than in healthy controls, those of VD intake were significantly higher (p < 0.05), especially in male patients and in those with balanced diet, low protein or carbohydrate consumption, specific food intolerances, and regular meals (p < 0.05), as well as in patients with a moderate or low consumption of cooked meals or steamed foods (p < 0.01). Conversely, VD intake was markedly lower in type 1 diabetics than in controls for dry and sunny areas, including the region of Adrar, as well as for consumption of low-fat foods and eggs (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Nevertheless, the relative risk of sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard did not show a significant association with T1D (common Mantel-Haenszel estimation, RR = 0.841, 95% CI 0.118–5.973, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: T1D does not appear to be associated with VD intake and sun exposure in the Algerian Sahara region. Therefore, the consumption of VD in T1D patients in the Algerian Sahara would suspect that its association with the disease would be related to its synthesis alteration.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Information on the effect of different animal protein sources on linear growth is needed to inform specific complementary food recommendations. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of milk (COMPIM1) and fish (COMPIM2) based complementary foods on linear growth and blood characteristics using Wistar rats. METHOD: The study adopted completely randomised design involving feeding of COMPIM1, COMPIM2, COMPIM3 (control) and basal diets to weanling rats (8 per group) for 28 days. Length (cm) and weight (grams) measurements were taken once and twice weekly, respectively. Blood samples were subjected to haematological and biochemical analysis. Data was analysed…using ANOVA and LSD. RESULTS: Rats fed the COMPIM2 diet had significantly (p < 0.001) the highest weight gain (63.50 g). There were no differences in the tail (p = 0.159) and total body length change (p = 0.142) of the rats fed COMPIM1, COMPIM2 and COMPIM3 diets. However, the mean length gain of rats fed COMPIM1 diet was more than that of the COMPIM2 and COMPIM3 groups by 9.8% and 12.6%, respectively. Except for white blood cells count and calcium, blood parameters of the experimental groups were similar. CONCLUSION: The milk diet resulted in better white blood cell counts but similar weight and length gain compared to the fish diet.
Abstract: High fat diet (HFD) predisposes to many metabolic changes; it may disrupt gut barrier integrity and gut microbiota composition. Synbiotic supplementation may promote host’s metabolic health by selective activation of the healthy microorganisms. This study aimed to probe the interaction between synbiotic supplementation, gut microbiota and gut hormones in HFD states. Twenty-seven adult male albino rats, 3 groups, group I: control, group II: HFD received HFD for 12 weeks and group III: synbiotic-supplemented HFD received synbiotic in the last 6 weeks. The anthropometric measurments were measured. Liver transaminases, lipid profile, parameters of insulin resistance, serum serotonin, glucagon like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1),…oxidant/antioxidant markers (MDA/GPx), zonulin levels and quantitative cecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were assessed. Samples of liver and colon were employed for histopathological studies. Compared to HFD group, synbiotic led to a significant reduction in anthropometric measurements, liver enzymes, atherogenic index, HOMA-IR and MDA denoting improved dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and oxidative state. Moreover, synbiotic supplementation decreased serum zonulin and increased both serum serotonin, GLP-1 and cecal SCFAs. Synbiotic supplementation ameliorated the metabolic derangements and the disturbed integrity of the intestinal barrier induced by HFD. As synbiotics can increase gut hormones (serum GLP-1&serotonin) and SCFAs.
Keywords: GLP-1, serotonin, zonulin, synbiotics, high fat diet, short chain
fatty acids, insulin resistance.