Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 15, issue 4
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypertension is a global public health problem and a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this paper, we study the effect of olive cake (OC) on blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction, redox status and vascular remodeling in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive (HT) rats. METHODS: HT rats were divided into two groups fed standard diet supplemented (HT-OC) or not (HT) with OC at 7.5% for 28 days. A control (C) was submitted to standard diet for the same experimental period. RESULTS: Systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures were higher in the HT vs C and decreased…in HT-OC vs HT. Aortic nitric oxide value was decreased in the HT vs the C and increased in HT-OC vs HT. Aortic lipid and protein oxidation products were higher in the HT than C and lower in the HT-OC vs HT. Aortic antioxidant enzymes activities were reduced in HT than control and increased in the HT-OC vs HT. The aortic wall thickness, medial cross-sectional area, media to lumen ratio and the number of VSMCs were higher in the HT and the OC has regressed vascular redemptions. CONCLUSION: In hypertensive rats, OC may alleviate blood pressure and arterial remodeling by suppressing oxidative stress, increasing antioxidant activity, improving endothelial function, preventing smooth muscle proliferation and thickening of the tunica media.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in diets due to the high contribution to greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to estimate the impact on GHGE of replacing the current diet with eight alternative diets, which would be associated with GHGE, to contribute to the discussion of how dietary changes affect the GHGE. METHODS: The latest National Nutrition and Health Survey was utilized to determine the nutrient composition of Turkey’s current diet, with eight dietary scenarios designed to meet the National Dietary Guidelines. RESULTS: The current diet had the highest GHGE…with 3254.50 g CO2 eq/person/day with beef, lamb, and cheese products accounting for the majority of emissions (18.61%, 17.15%, and 10.89%, respectively). The Model diet had a GHGE of 2994.18 g CO2 eq/person/day, whereas vegetarian diets had the lowest (lacto-ovo vegetarian diet with 1944.95 g CO2 eq/person/day and vegan diet with 1166.80 g CO2 eq/person/day). Low energy efficiencies were associated with high diet-related GHGE levels. CONCLUSION: When evaluating future dietary guidelines for a sustainable diet, our study highlighted the need of integrating both health and environmental aspects. The present study found that dietary changes would significantly contribute to lowering GHGE. These findings will be beneficial in informing Turkey’s nutrition, agriculture, and public policymakers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Health related quality of life of the adolescents during quarantine and social isolation potentially decreases, with significant alteration on physical activities and nutrition behaviour. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the relationship between Greek adolescents’ health related quality of life and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle and dietary characteristics, along with their adherence to the Mediterranean Diet immediately after the lockdown period in Greece. METHODS: A total sample of 459 students aged 12–16 years old were recruited from secondary schools in the area of Athens. The KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire for children and adolescents, the KIDMED test, the Godin and…Shephard Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Family Affluence Scale III, were used for the statistical analysis. T -tests, Kruskal Wallis, Chi-square, Anova tests and multiple regression analyses were employed. RESULTS: Econometric analysis reveals that adolescents’ health related quality of life is higher among boys, adolescents who live with both parents, tend to sleep more during night and do not spend many hours on screen viewing. Also, adolescents with higher family affluence level, being physically active and with a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet have higher health related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents’ adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, physical activity, socioeconomic characteristics and life style behaviors are highly correlated with perceived health related quality of life during COVID-19 period.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a common multifactorial problem affecting maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the impact of personalized nutritional intervention on nutritional status and quality of life (QOL) in MHD patients. METHODS: Interventional study included 18 MHD patients suffering from PEW. They were subjected to personalized nutritional intervention for 6 months according to Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) Clinical Practice Guidelines (2000). QOL was evaluated by using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (36 KDQOL-36). Nutritional status and QOL of those patients were re-assessed after 6 months and compared…to those at the baseline. RESULTS: Fourteen patients completed six months of the study. Following such intervention, half of these patients became no longer suffering from PEW (responder group). Most of the nutritional and QOL data improved in the responder in contrary to the non-responder group of patients. The baseline level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was significantly higher but physical health was significantly lower in non-responder than responder groups. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of an internationally acknowledged nutritional program could improve the nutritional status and QOL of MHD patients with PEW. Moreover, PTH level, and physical health of the studied patients could contribute to the positive response to nutritional intervention.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prolonged high fat diet consumption was reported to cause metabolic disorders including obesity, NAFLD and insulin resistance. NAFLD is one of the common causes of liver failure with lipid accumulation and inflammation as the major driving forces for its progression. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating the benefits of Aloe vera supplementation on lipid profiles, antioxidant properties, liver function as well as the histology of liver, heart and brain on high fat diet induced toxicity in BALB/c mice. METHODS: Eighteen mice were divided into three groups (n = 6). Group 1 received normal diet…(Vital feed), group 2 received high fat diet (HFD) i.e. 70 g of normal diet plus 30 g of margarine, while group 3 received high fat diet plus Aloe vera (HFD+AV) i.e. 100 g of HFD plus 20 g of Aloe vera gel. The mice were fed for 10 weeks and euthanized thereafter. The liver function, lipid profiles, antioxidant properties as well as liver, brain and heart histology were evaluated. RESULTS: The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the HFD treated mice compared to the control. Liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in HFD+AV treated mice compared to the control and HFD treated mice. The liver of HFD+AV treated mice showed normal architecture while those of HFD treated mice showed numerous hepatic vacuoles indicative of fat droplets. CONCLUSIONS: Aloe vera supplementation regulated liver function and prevents hyperlipidemia. The resultant effect increased antioxidant activities thereby preventing liver injury and brain damage.
Keywords: Aloe vera, steatosis, hyperlipidemia, high fat diet, obesity
Abstract: BACKGROUND: SARS-COV 2 turned in a global epidemic since January 2020. It is able to directly stimulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm) and, affecting enterocytis, dysregulates intestinal permeability likewise Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. According to Guidelines, nutritional support in COVID-19 patients is relevant in a perspective of a fast recovery. Aim of this study is to propose in SARS-COV2 patients an early nutritional support using a polymeric - TGF-beta2 containing formula, with immunoregulatory properties specific for bowel disease, evaluating its effects on systemic inflammation and protein energy malnutrition. METHODS: COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Santa Maria Hospital of…Terni and in Madonna delle Grazie Hospital of Matera (March - December 2020) were enrolled. The protocol consists in supplying 150 gr of nutritional formula powder (750 kcal/day). Values of serum prealbumin, transferrin, C-reactive protein and Lymphocyte count were collected at baseline and every week. Data were compared to a untreated sample of inpatients. RESULTS: TGF-beta2 containing formula use seems to be associated to a lower needing and longer time free from steroid therapy, increasing of prealbumin and transferrin values and overall with a better outcome in exposed patients; higher values of serum prealbumin seemed to be associated with lower CRP. It does not induce gastrointestinal discomfort or worsen gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: TGF-beta2 containing formula represents a valid nutritional support in COVID-19, preventing sarcopenia associated to hypercatabolic status and modulating inflammatory response probably thanks to specific properties of its nutritional components. This is only a preliminary observation: further investigations are on-going, involving several Italian Centers.
Keywords: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), early oral nutritional supplement, modulation of inflammatory response, Transforming Growth Factors Beta2 (TGFβ2)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Intuitive eating is defined by eating response to physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational or emotional cues and it has been linked to psychological well-being. The 23-item Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) is commonly used to assess the concept of intuitive eating. OBJECTIVE: To develop the Greek version of the IES-2 questionnaire and to test its psychometric qualities. METHODS: Forward and backward translations into Greek and English were completed. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was applied to understand the underlying factor structure of the IES-2, whilst internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha test. The…concurrent validity was assessed by evaluating the correlation among the IES-2 and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 Item (EAT-26) questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 379 adults (mean age = 34 years) participated. EFA gave a three-factor structure with the total variance explained being 54.4%. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.87 for the IES-2 total score, as well as 0.90, 0.84 and 0.70 for the IES-2 subscales. The revised IES-2 total score was significantly correlated with EAT-26 total score (rs = –0.46, p < 0.01) and BMI (rs = –0.46, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this sample, the Greek version of the IES-2 showed good psychometric qualities and can be regarded a helpful tool for examining adult intuitive eating behaviours.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The nutrition screening tool determines whether or not a patient is at risk of malnutrition. Many organizations contributed to the form’s design by researching various nutritional screening tools. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to analyse the different screening forms for the hospitalised geriatric patients to understand the nutritional status as well as the comorbidities. In addition, the study intends to identify the essential parameters from three nutrition screening forms-MUST,NRS-2002,MNA. The primary outcome is to identify the essential parameters from the screening form and calculating the nutrition risk score is considered a secondary outcome.…METHODS: The research was done on geriatric patients who were admitted to the hospital from November 2019 to March 2020, suffering from comorbidities. The study comprises 192 hospitalized patients with an average age of 74 years including both genders. The patients’ data was collected by a certified dietician to understand the essential parameters of these nutrition screening forms. The Pearson correlation test is used to find the correlation value between the screening form parameters. Based on the analysis, features with a correlation value greater than 0.5 with the nutrition score are considered a significant parameter for the research. RESULTS: The analysis of the nutrition screening strategy demonstrates the different significant parameters of the above three screening forms. The experimentation shows, the significant parameters are the Body Mass Index, impaired nutrition status, the severity of disease, mobility, mode of feeding, nutritional status, and weight loss score. CONCLUSIONS: The research is performed to understand the correlation between the screening form parameters MNA, MUST, NRS2002 using a non-invasive method and analyze the score in patients to improve health rates by using nutritional risk therapy and nutritional care for such patients. Nutrition therapy can be applied to patients suffering from malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition to improve the health of the patient.
Keywords: Malnutrition, nutritional risk, Body Mass Index (BMI), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)
Abstract: Now a days, scientific community has been taking initiatives to decrease burden of metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and many others. Many nutraceuticals and functional food have a crucial function in preventing and decreasing burden of chronic diseases. Main purpose of the study was to relate association between mechanism of gut microbiota effecting cardiovascular diseases, moreover, to find out advantageous effects of berry polyphenols on gut microbiota and cardiovascular diseases. To summarize, we explore literature for beneficial effects of berry polyphenols by using multiple search engines including Google Scholar, Science Direct and PubMed. Original research article,…review articles, experimental trials (human and animal studies) and abstract were also included in the current study based on relevancy to the characteristics of berries and their potential benefit on human health. This detailed review revealed that all classes of berries and their metabolites possess a definite impact on human health by preventing onset of chronic diseases by its anti-inflammatory property, thus, consider as one of the beneficial natural compounds that can be consumed on daily basis to prevent various disorders. There is also a positive association between berry polyphenols and modulation of gut microbiota and their metabolites, furthermore, showed a relationship between gut microbiome and incidence of cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, polyphenols, gut microbiota, berries, metabolic disorders
Abstract: Canned fish products are of great economic importance for many countries and are preferred by consumers due to their rich nutritional composition and beneficial health effects. The steps of canning process and formulation vary depending on the species processed and the desired end product. This work is an overview of the current research investigating the effects of canning process, several preprocessing treatments and formulation on the nutritional composition, sensory characteristics and microbial quality of the end product. Key findings of recent studies on health effects and potential risk factors associated with the consumption of canned fish products are presented. Moreover,…the global demand for canned fish products is increasing due to the changing consumption behavior and healthy eating habits of consumers after the pandemic. This review summarizes the major challenges that need to be addressed for meeting the increasing demand for canned fish products. Finally, based on the findings of current studies reviewed, the perspectives and research gaps for canned fish products are stated.