Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 15, issue 1
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, and previous studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) can be effective in reducing the incidence and progression of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine an association between adherence to MeDi and the risk of PD in adults by meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: Online databases including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to March 2021. Cohort studies that examined the association of PD risk with adherence to MeDi were included. A pooled relative risk with…a 95% confidence interval was calculated by a random effects meta-analysis. As well, bias assessment, assessment of heterogeneity, sensitivity, and subgroup analyses were carried out. The primary outcome was Parkinson’s incidence. RESULTS: Overall four papers on PD risk were included in the present systematic review and meta-analysis. The effect size of the summary for the risk of overall PD, comparing the highest with the lowest adherence to MeDi, was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.98), indicating a significant inverse association. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to MeDi has a protective role against PD. Also, adhering to this dietary pattern at a younger age may be more beneficial in reducing the risk of PD. However, we suggest more prospective cohort studies in this regard.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: During the Covid-19 pandemic, the increase in the anxiety levels of individuals is associated with the increase in body weight. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of changes in individuals’ experiences and mood on eating habits and body weights in during social restrictions due to COVID-19. METHODS: The study included 623 adults in Turkey. Demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, information about nutritional habits during the pandemic period were questioned via an online survey. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to evaluate individuals’ negative perspectives. RESULTS: The rate of patients who experienced body weight changes…during the pandemic period was 61.4% (40.2% experienced increase), the mean BDI value was found to be higher in individuals whose body weight increased/decreased compared to those who experienced no change in body weight (p = 0.008, p = 0.02, respectively). Variables that positively affected the BDI scores, which was performed in individuals with increased body weight, main meal numbers (p < 0.03), and change in dried fruit consumption (p = 0.05). The variables that negatively affected the BDI scores were body weight increase (p = 0.05) and changes in cheese consumption. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the changes in the emotional state during COVID-19 had an effect on dietary habits and body weight. There is a need for more comprehensive randomized studies on the interaction between lifestyle changes during the social intervention period due to the Covid-19 epidemic, quality of life, emotional state and eating habits.
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, Beck Depression Inventory, nutrition habits, body weight
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Today, individuals with eating disorders or orthorexia nervosa (ON) are increasing. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association between ON, eating attitudes, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms among healthcare and non-healthcare professionals. METHODS: The present study was cross-sectional, and conducted by 310 healthcare, and non-healthcare professionals. Data on demographic characteristics, the Orthorexia Nervosa Evaluation Scale (ORTO-15), the Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40), and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) were obtained by a questionnaire form. Additionally, the body weight and height of participants were taken to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Data were analyzed with SPSS statistical…package 24.0. RESULTS: The ORTO-15 score of 30.3% of healthcare professionals and 27.1% of non-healthcare professionals were ≤40 (p: 0.616). The EAT-40 scores were found to be ≥30 in 7.7% of healthcare professionals and 4.5% of non-healthcare professionals (p: 0.081). According to the MOCI scores, the possibility of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was high in 29.7% of healthcare professionals (p < 0.001). There was a weak negative correlation between ORTO-15 and EAT-40 (r: –0.176, p: 0.002) and MOCI (r: –0.170, p: 0.003); and EAT-40 and MOCI (r:0.166, p: 0.03). CONCLUSION: Further studies are required to understand the relationship between ON and eating disorders that are included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) criteria.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Healthy dietary patterns are typically associated with improved metabolic and cardiovascular health in population-based cohorts. This study aims to investigate whether a healthy dietary score, derived from UK Diabetes and Diet Questionnaire (UKDDQ), is significantly associated with measures of metabolic health and nutritional status in patients with T2DM. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 85 patients with T2DM (age: 51.7±9.4, BMI: 30.6±5.3) and 20 healthy volunteers (age: 48.4±8.6, BMI: 29.5±5) recruited from the Al-Hassan Diabetes and Endocrinology Specialized Center, Karbala, Iraq. Body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) and resting clinic blood pressure were measured. All participants…completed the UKDDQ to assess the quality of the diet. Metabolic and nutritional biomarkers were measured in fasting blood samples. A composite nutritional heathy index score (CNHI-score) based on the sum of z-scores for plasma vitamin A, C and E concentrations was derived. RESULTS: In patients with T2DM the UKDDQ score was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG) (r = –0.33; P < 0.01), hemoglobin A1C (r = –0.49; P < 0.001), total cholesterol (TC) (r = –0.26; P = 0.02) concentrations. In patients with T2DM, the CNHI-score significantly associated with UKDDQ (r = 0.43; P < 0.001). In addition, a higher CNHI-score was associated with FBG (r = –0.61; P < 0.001), HbA1C (r = –0.83; P < 0.001), TC (r = –0.30; P < 0.01) and triglyceride (r = –0.30; P < 0.01) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A healthy diet is associated with a higher concentration of anti-oxidant vitamins and better glycemic and lipid profile in healthy subjects and in patients with T2DM.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dietary diversity score (DDS) is recognized as an essential factor of a high-quality diet. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between DDS and cardiometabolic risk factors in hypertensive patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 972 hypertensive patients (322 males and 650 females) aged 35–70y participated were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and DDS was calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the IDF/AHA criteria. The anthropometric parameters, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and liver enzymes were measured. RESULTS: Male subjects who assigned to the top DDS tertile had…51% lower risk of having low serum HDL-C (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.24–0.96) in the crude model. A similar association was observed for men in the second tertile of DDS after adjusting for covariates (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23–0.97). A significant inverse association was found between vegetable diversity score and odds of hyperglycemia in the male group in the adjusted model (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.22–0.91). The vegetable diversity score was inversely associated with 67% decreased metabolic syndrome risk in the adjusted model (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15–0.70). CONCLUSION: These findings clarify the possible preventive role of higher DDS against metabolic syndrome.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: While evidence has been a highlight that obesity may be associated with the increased incidence of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), these data have depended on defective measures of obesity such as body mass index (BMI), and usually have not the well-known relationship between body composition with NAFLD. METHODS: In a case-control study of people aged 20– 65 years, we directly measured body composition (using bioelectrical impedance analysis), height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences who referred to radiology clinics in Kermanshah, Iran. Dietary intake was assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). RESULTS: Among…221 people examined, 103 cases with NAFLD and 119 as control were established. The risk of NAFLD was positively associated with higher BMI and the components of the body composition. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for potential confounders including gender, age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity CONCLUSION: An increasing prevalence of obesity may be associated with the increasing incidence of NAFLD as observed in many populations. We observed an increased risk of NAFLD associated with increased BMI, central adiposity, and the fat component of weight, but found no association with nonfat mass.
Keywords: Body composition, non-alcoholic
fatty liver disease, case-control study
Abstract: Diet plays a central role in aging and in the prevention of age-related diseases. Specifically, dietary lipids have influence on processes like oxidative stress or inflammation. This review summarizes and compares the effects of lifelong feeding on three different fat sources, namely virgin olive oil, sunflower oil or fish oil (which differ in fatty acid profile and minor components content) in the pancreas, liver, alveolar bone and femur of old rats. Also, effects on longevity and causes of death are summarized. Animals fed on virgin olive oil had a lower number of β cells and insulin content in the…pancreas, less liver fibrosis, less loss of alveolar bone, and greater bone mass density in the femur. In general, the markers of oxidative damage at the liver, pancreatic, gingival and systemic levels were also lower in animals fed on virgin olive oil compared to those treated with sunflower or fish oil. Finally, although the animals died from similar causes regardless of the experimental group, virgin olive oil increased lifespan compared to sunflower oil. Therefore, it is evidenced the chance to modulate the effects of the physiological aging process by diet and, more specifically, by dietary fat.
Abstract: Synbiotic supplementation can improve metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of synbiotic supplementation on the levels of asprosin, lipid profile, glucose, and insulin resistance in pregnant rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Rats were divided into three groups: control group (fed base chow), HFD group, and HFD + synbiotic group. Levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, and asprosin levels were measured. Birth weight of offspring in the HFD + synbiotic group was significantly lower than in the HFD group. Similarly, serum asprosin, insulin, insulin resistance, TG and…total cholesterol levels in the HFD + symbiotic group were significantly lower than in the HFD group. Asprosin levels had a significant and positive correlation between food intake in the first ten days of the experiment and gestation period, fasting blood sugar (FBS), TG, and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index. Moreover, asprosin levels had a significant and negative correlation with HDL and insulin levels. Results showed, synbiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on obese animals and improves weight gain during pregnancy, pup birth weight, FBS, insulin resistance and lipid profile. These advantages of synbiotic supplementation could be mediated by reducing serum asprosin levels.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aging is a process that does not refer only to the accumulation of damage in a human being over time but rather to individual changes determined by genetic, lifestyle, social and environmental factors. Aging is one of the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases. An older person in good health has a good level of independence, weighs less on the national health system and plays a productive and active role in his/her community; thus, the concept of “healthy aging”, reflecting older adult-environment fit should be promoted. The interactions between lifestyle, including nutrition, and health play a fundamental…role in the aging process; eating habits and eating behaviours are recognized as important modifiable factors potentially leading to a healthy “phenotype”. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary consortium with three Italian universities (the University of Milano-Bicocca, University of Pavia and University of Calabria) and Italian Small-Medium Enterprises proposed the Food Social Network (Food NET) project. Food NET overall outcome is to achieve target-specific guidelines and exact technologies for accessible functional foods, aimed at improving the quality of life and nutritional status of citizens (aged>65) of the Metropolitan City of Milan (Italy). CONCLUSIONS: This project is part of the “Smart Living” and food-related strategies aimed at responding to the needs of this target population, developing new food products, appropriate to meet the specific requirements and ensuring and promoting sustainable diets for healthy aging by effective food policy approaches.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are among the leading causes of coronary heart disease (CHD). Studies investigated the relationship between dietary antioxidants and the risk/odds of CHD, and contradictory results have been reported. Dietary antioxidant index (DAI) is a novel and reliable nutritional tool that examines the diet’s overall antioxidant capacity. Its validity was examined using serum total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DAI score and odds of CHD. METHODS: In this incidence case-control study, 320 individuals with a definitive diagnosis of CHD and 320 participants without…CHD or related risk factors attending the same hospitals/polyclinics were selected as the case and control groups. We estimated the DAI by summing up six standardized intakes of major dietary antioxidants, including manganese, vitamin E, A, C, selenium, and zinc. RESULTS: Modeling DAI categorized according to the median (–0.38), in multi-adjusted model showed a significant protective association with the odd of CHD (OR = 0.72; 95%CI:0.51–0.99, p -value = 0.05). Also, modeling DAI as a continuous variable in multi-adjusted models (OR = 0.94;95%CI:0.90–0.95; p -value = 0.01) showed significant results. CONCLUSION: Using the DAI to investigate the relationship between dietary antioxidants and CHD can show more realistic results than a single study of antioxidants.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nutritional assessment, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), malondialdehyde (MDA)