Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 13, issue 4
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder and one of the most challenging health problems worldwide. Left untreated, it may progress causing serious complications. Genetics, epigenetics, and environmental factors are known to play an overlapping role in the pathogenesis of DM. Growing evidence suggests the hypothesis that the environment induces changes in the early phases of growth and development, influencing health and disease in the adulthood through the alteration in genetic expression of an individual, at least in part. DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs are three mechanisms responsible for epigenetic alterations. The daily diet contains a number of…secondary metabolites, with polyphenols being highest in abundance, which contribute to overall health and may prevent or delay the onset of many chronic diseases. Polyphenols have the ability to alter metabolic and signaling pathways at various levels, such as gene expression, epigenetic regulation, protein expression and enzyme activity. The potential efficacy of polyphenolic compounds on glucose homeostasis has been evidenced from in vitro , in vivo and clinical studies. The present review is designed to focus on epigenetic regulation exerted by polyphenolic compounds in DM and their complications, as well as to summarize clinical trials involving polyphenols in DM.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: There are conflicting results regarding the relationship between metabolic diseases and vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to show the possible relationship between 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels and obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred fifty seven female were included retrospectively. Body mass index (BMI) was determined with body weight (kg)/height (m2 ) formula. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, thyroid stimulating hormone were evaluated. Insulin resistance was calculated with homeostatic model values for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Patients were grouped according to 25 (OH) vitamin…D levels and BMIs. RESULTS: 25 (OH) vitamin D was negative correlated with BMI, insulin and HOMA-IR, (respectively r = –0.156, –0.128, –0.123 and p = 0.003, 0.015, 0.020). It is positive correlated with HDL and HDL/LDL ratio (respectively r = 0.183, 0.185 and p = 0.003, <0.001) HDL-C was higher in 25(OH) vitamin D sufficient group. After multivariate analysis, 25 (OH) vitamin D was still positively related with HDL and HDL/LDL ratio (respectively r = 0.127, 0.118 and p = <0.05). CONCLUSION: 25 (OH) Vitamin D is relationship with HDL, HDL/LDL ratio and invers relationship obesity. The normal 25 (OH) vitamin D supports the reduction of metabolik risk.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of nutrition style and breastfeeding on the formation of gallstone in women. METHODS: 50 women age from 40 to 69 included in the study. A questionnaire in which the participant’s general information questioned, their anthropometric values recorded, and the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence scale included, was filled in by the face-to-face interview method. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) values were higher in those with gallstones than in the control group. The total…breastfeeding time and MD adherence scores were higher in the control group. It determined that there was a negative relationship between breastfeeding time with DBP and CRP. It found that an increase in BMI and WC increases the probability of gallstones. It found that an increase in the duration of breastfeeding and MD adherence score decreases the probability of the gallstones. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding and Mediterranean diet reduce the risk of gallstones in women.
Keywords: Body weight, breastfeeding, C-reactive protein, gallstone, mediterranean diet
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Early childhood nutrition is associated with health outcomes later in life, hence developing health promoting habits from an early age is imperative. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy of home-packed food brought to the nurseries by attending children. METHODS: In a cross sectional study conducted in 7 nurseries in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 315 food-boxes were assessed through detailed food observations at the nurseries prior to mealtimes. The food content was evaluated using the Alberta Guidelines for nursery food, Canada. RESULTS: Most food boxes contained refined…grains (77.5%), fruits (74.6%), sweet/full fat dairy products (77.5%), discretionary-calorie-food-items (70.6%). Emirati children were offered sweetened drinks significantly more (p < 0.001). Non-dairy protein sources, vegetables, low-fat-natural-dairy products were offered to 45.4%, 44.1% and 3.9% of children, respectively. Overall, 70.2% of the food-boxes contained not-recommended food and 63.1% of the children were served a very poor food combination. CONCLUSIONS: Despite frequent inclusion of recommended food, many food boxes were nutritionally inadequate due to their low content of whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables and animal proteins and high content of sweet food and drinks. The inadequate dietary patterns necessitate developing nutrition guidelines for nurseries in Abu Dhabi.
Keywords: Lunch boxes, preschool children, food groups, discretionary calories, nurseries, United Arab Emirates
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In spite of an obvious association between diet and mental health, there is only few report regarding the association between diet and psychosomatic complaints. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of the Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet with psychosomatic complaints profile in comparison with the Mediterranean diet (aMED). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study on 2818 Isfahanian adults, a validated dish-based food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. Psychosomatic complaints profile was evaluated through a self-administered Persian validated questionnaire by using exploratory factor analysis. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounders,…individuals in the highest quintile of the MIND diet had lower risk for experiencing psychological (odds ratio (OR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42, 0.86; P trend < 0.0001), and pharyngeal-respiratory (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.79; P = 0.002). The association for neuro-skeletal complaints was marginally significant (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.03; P = 0.093). The aMED diet tended to lower gastrointestinal complaints (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.01; P = 0.062). CONCLUSION: The MIND diet was inversely associated with different psychosomatic complaints risk, but no evidence of such an association for the MED diet was observed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low Health Literacy (HL) and Nutrition Literacy (NL) are associated with serious negative health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate certain lifestyle factors and obesity, in relation to HL and NL. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban area of the Attica region, in Greece. The sample consisted of 1281 individuals, aged ≥18 years. HL, NL sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption,) were assessed. Mann-Whitney U, the Kruskall Wallis, Pearson chi-square tests and multiple linear regression models were used. RESULTS: Linear…regression analysis has shown that smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity, were associated with HL levels (–1.573 points for ex-smokers in comparison to smokers, p = 0.035, –1.349 points for alcohol consumers in comparison to non-consumers, p = 0.006 and 1.544 points for physically active individuals to non-active, p = 0.001). With respect to NL levels, it was also not associated with any of these factors. Obesity was not associated with HL and NL levels. CONCLUSIONS: Certain lifestyle factors, including physical activity, are predicting factors of HL levels, in Greek adults. The results contribute to the understanding of the relationship between lifestyle factors and HL and should be taken into account when HL policies are designed.
Keywords: Health literacy, nutrition literacy, lifestyle
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated lower serum zinc among prediabetics and diabetics, compared to normoglycemics, however no current data is available for regional Australia. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the relationship between serum zinc, glycemic status and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) parameters in a regional Australian hospital population. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients presenting to a regional Australian hospital between June-2004 and April-2017 was conducted. Patients ordered for fasting blood glucose (FBG)+serum zinc; or FBG+serum insulin; or FBG+serum zinc+serum insulin were included. Serum zinc, FBG, serum insulin, lipid profile, vitamin-D and demographic information were collected. β-cell function,…insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity were calculated by HOMA2 calculator. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirteen patient records were retrieved: 75% normoglycemic, 19% prediabetic, 6% diabetic. Serum zinc was lowest in diabetics and lower in prediabetics than normoglycemics. In simple linear regression among all participants, higher serum zinc associated with increased insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin resistance and decreased β-cell function. CONCLUSIONS: The low serum zinc status exhibited in diabetic and prediabetic individuals may play a role in insulin resistance pathogenesis. Higher zinc levels associated with greater insulin sensitivity and lower insulin resistance signifying the importance of investigating zinc supplementation in prediabetics to prevent or delay diabetes in future studies.