Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 13, issue 2
Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 75.00
Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: COVID-19 disease is characterized by serious clinical manifestations which could require urgent hospitalization. Prolonged hospitalization, with catabolism and immobilization, induces a decrease in weight and muscle mass which can result in sarcopenia, a condition that impairs respiratory and cardiac function, worsening the prognosis. In this scenario there is an urgent need of nutritional indications aimed to prevent or contrast hospital malnutrition by improving the patient’s response to therapy and to facilitate healthcare professionals in managing nutritional interventions on patients, reducing their already high workload due to the state of emergency.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Preventing obesity and non-communicable disease is possible by making the right eating habits from early ages, therefore increasing food literacy level might be enforced in the preventive programs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to measure university students’ food literacy level using “A short food literacy questionnaire (SFLQ) for adults” and determining cut-off point compared with health literacy. METHODS: Questionnaire was about Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test, Turkey Health Literacy SCALE-32 (TSOY-32) and Short Food Literacy Questionnaire (SFLQ). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed by calculating the specificity and sensitivity of the…scale cut-off values, and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed. RESULTS: The score from SLFQ increased with the improvement of general health perception and having food label reading habit (respectively; p = 0.003; p < 0.001). The mean SFLQ score increases with the increased level of TSOY-32 health literacy (P < 0.001). Finally, according to the results, classification of individuals with SFLQ is≥31 points as Adequate-Excellent food literacy and < 31 points as Inadequate-Limited food literacy. CONCLUSION: Describing food literacy in two categories will be easy to demonstrate the connection between food literacy and healthy food consumption behaviors.
Keywords: Food literacy, Nutrition habits, Health literacy
Abstract: BACKGROUND: War veterans are at risk for obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus because of specific mental and physical status, and underlying disorders. Also, due to lower exposure to sunlight they are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and obesity and metabolic syndrome in veterans in order to identify nutritional deficits, improve metabolic status and reduce the risk of related diseases. METHODS: Demographic information, anthropometric parameters and blood tests (FBS, HbA1C, TG, HDL, vitamin D3) of veterans referring to the weight disorder clinic during 2017…to 2018 were collected. RESULTS: 339 veterans were included. The mean BMI was 30.4±6.7 kg/m2. 80.5% of this population had vitamin D deficiency and it was associated with weight, TG, LDL, FBS, HbA1C, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and Diabetes. In multivariate analysis, there was a significant relationship between obesity and hypovitaminosis D (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, metabolic syndrome and obesity is high among veterans. Despite non-significant relationships, risk of metabolic syndrome is higher in patients with hypovitaminosis D. Hence, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in veterans seems to be necessary.
Keywords: War veterans, obesity, metabolic syndrome, vitamin D level
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the diets of minor migrants with similar ethnic groups in the country of origin. Although Moroccans form the largest foreign population group in Spain, there is limited information on their dietary changes and the effects on nutritional status. AIM: To determine whether migration has caused changes in adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) in a sample of Moroccan adolescents living in Madrid (Spain) compared with their peers in northern Morocco (Al Hoceima). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 409 Moroccan pupils, 308 living in Al Hoceima and 101 living in…Madrid. Food records were compiled over three non-consecutive days by pre-trained adolescents. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using the DIAL software, adapted to include foods usually eaten in Morocco. Diet quality indicators studied were the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI), caloric profile, cholesterol (mg/1000 kcal) and fibre density (g/1000 kcal). A binary logistic regression model was used to test the association between the MAI and the adolescents’ geographical location and socio-economic level. RESULTS: Moroccan adolescents living in Al Hoceima were significantly 10.5 times more likely to attain a high MAI score than their peers living in Madrid. For both sexes, migration decreased significantly the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (1.8 vs. 2.5). For boys, migrant adolescents had significantly higher daily energy (2860.9 vs. 2139.1 kcal), protein (13.9 vs. 13.2 %) and lower fibre (11.2 vs. 14.3) intakes than autochthonous adolescents. For girls, there were no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Migration can be beneficial for Moroccan migrants in terms of increased daily energy intake. However, the fact that their energy intake is increasingly provided by non-Mediterranean foods could have negative consequences for their health, with increased rates of overweight and obesity. It is essential to continue to promote the Mediterranean Diet, especially among young people.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD), a sustainable dietary pattern with multiple benefits to health, environment, economy and society is decreasing even in the older adults in rural Crete; the prototype pattern from the 7 Country Study. OBJECTIVE: Investigate social and health related factors that may be perceived as barriers to adherence to the MD, among older adults, living in rural region of Crete, Greece. METHODS: Evaluate a) adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern using the MedDietScore b) dietary intake using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) c) social connections using the Social Capital Questionnaire including…the Physical and Mental Component of Health (PCS and MCS, respectively) and d) health-related quality of life (HRQL) using the SF-36 Questionnaire, among older adults residing in the Municipality of Minoa; a Cretan rural area. A total of 436 older adults (>65 years, 58% men) were enrolled. RESULTS: Mean MedDietScore was moderate (31.9±3.6) and was found higher in males (32.9±3.4 vs 30.6±3.4; p < 0.001). Total social capital was 75 (68,80) with no significant differences between genders. The PCS was 45 (37,52) and the MCS 47 (40,54), males achieving a higher score (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.01 respectively). Results of linear regression, for adherence of the MD, showed sex (p < 0.0001), marital status (p = 0.039), “growing vegetables-fruits” (p = 0.014) and car ownership (p = 0.044), associated with MedDietScore. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults living in Crete, adhere moderately to the MD, with potential barriers being lower PCS and MCS and weak support provided by family and community structures as quantified by low scores in social capital and health-related quality of life.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Circular economy aims to get added value from byproducts of agriculture or livestock, including beekeeping. Classically in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillar clews formation have been considered as the main characteristics. However, the role of oxidative stress in the onset and progression of β-amyloid accumulation has been related. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to test the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of five hydrophilic extracts (sample 1–5; S1–S5) from a mud byproduct obtained from the recycling of beeswax using the Caenorhabditis elegans model. METHODS: The antioxidant activity was tested in vitro by…DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. The content of phenols and flavonoids was evaluated by colorimetric procedures. Antioxidant and neuroprotective activities were investigated in vivo using the C. elegans model. RESULTS: The antioxidant capacity of the samples and their content in phenols and flavonoids was demonstrated. Nematodes treated with S1, S2 and S5 showed lower intracellular production of hydrogen peroxide. A neuroprotective activity of S1 extract was demonstrated by a delay in paralysis caused by the accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ 1–42). CONCLUSIONS: S1 extract exhibits important antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in vivo , which could provide a novel source of natural antioxidants and neuroprotective compounds.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Studies on hemodialysis (HD) patients reveal suboptimal dietary intakes, which have been linked to protein-energy wasting and its detrimental consequences. OBJECTIVE: Given the paucity of data regarding nutrient intakes of Eastern Mediterranean HD patients, we conducted a pilot study on HD patients at Heraklion, Crete, Greece to assess adequacy of dietary intakes and to determine their relationship with nutritional status. METHODS: Nutritional status of 36 patients aged 61.8±15.0 years was evaluated by three 24-hour dietary recalls, anthropometry and blood biochemical markers. RESULTS: The mean dietary energy and protein intakes were 34.4±2.1 kcal/kg and 1.25±0.067 g/kg,…respectively. The anthropometric results were indicative of a well-maintained somatic status. 30.6% of the patients had adequate weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 ) and 69.4% were overweight or obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2 ). Patients had arm anthropometrics higher than the 25th percentile. Mean predialysis serum levels of urea and creatinine, were within the expected range, phosphorus was borderline high, while albumin and cholesterol were at the optimum level for HD patients. In univariate linear regression, a positive relation was observed between ideal weight-adjusted energy (wEI) and protein (wPI) intakes with anthropometric and biochemical indices. However, in the multivariate model, only the associations between dietary intakes of energy and protein with anthropometric indices remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: 24-hour derived-dietary intakes reached recommended targets and adequately reflected the nutritional status of the patients, according to anthropometric and biochemical indices. Additionally, the 24-hour recall method should be part of the routine care for HD patients, in order to identify patients at nutritional risk before objective parameters of wasting are documented.
Abstract: Functional food is considered to be effective in promoting health and wellbeing. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus strongly depend on diet to achieve better glycaemic control and to reduce the burden of the disease. However, adherence to a controlled diet and to proper monitoring of the disease may be challenging for the patients and their family. The use of electronic devices and software together with the implementation of a tailored telemedicine model can help to overcome some of the issues related to the management of this complex disease. To better understand how a telemedicine system can be useful in…empowering patients with diabetes so as to enhance the effects of a therapeutic diet, we propose a research protocol as part of the Diabete Calabria 2.0 project, aimed to study a working model in a real-life setting.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, telemedicine, diabete Calabria, functional food