Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 10, issue 1
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Barley, which is rich in β-glucans, is known to exhibit hypocholesterolemic effect. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effect of yogurt containing barley β-glucan (BBG) and probiotic bacteria in rats fed on a cholesterol-enriched diet. METHODS: The methodology was based on adding of 0.75% BBG to skim milk (SM) powder. Four treatments of yogurt were formulated, wherein the first treatment was produced from SM without the addition of BBG and fermented by yogurts starter (YS). The second treatment was produced from SM with the addition of 0.75% BBG, and fermented by YS. The…third treatment was produced from SM without the addition of 0.75% BBG, and fermented by Bifidobacterium lactis plus Lactobacillus acidophilus . The fourth treatment was produced from SM with addition of 0.75% BBG, and fermented by Bifidobacterium lactis plus Lactobacillus acidophilus . All formulations were evaluated for their effect on plasma lipids, liver lipids, lipid peroxidation, and the fecal excretion of bile acids in rats. RESULTS: The results indicated that yogurt containing probiotic bacteria and BBG was more effective in lowering of plasma and liver cholesterol levels than other treatments. The fecal excretions of bile acids and lipid peroxidation were markedly promoted in yogurt formulated with BBG and probiotic bacteria compared with the positive control group. The results showed an inverse relationship between the fecal excretions of bile acids and the levels of total cholesterol in the plasma from rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of BBG and probiotic bacteria in the diet of rats fed on high-cholesterol diet had health-promoting impacts on the levels of plasma and liver lipids. Yogurt with Bifidobacterium plus L. acidophilus and supplemented with BBG were effective in lowering the levels of cholesterol in plasma and liver lipids, while the excretion of bile acids in the feces was enhanced. These hypocholesterolemic effects of yogurt preparations containing BBG and probiotic bacteria could create an effective and economic contribution in treating hypercholesterolaemia.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Schoolchildren in Morocco are rarely targeted by micronutrient interventions. A school-milk program could be a good strategy for the administration of micronutrients, including vitamin A, in Moroccan school age children. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to evaluate the effect of consumption of multiple micronutrients fortified milk on reducing vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in a pilot school milk program. METHODS: This longitudinal, interventional and double-blind study aimed to investigate the effects of consuming multi-micronutrient fortified whole milk, including vitamin A, for a period of 9 months, as part of a geographical targeted school-milk program, on vitamin A…status of school-aged children living in a rural and mountainous area. Children were divided in two groups: a non-fortified milk group (NFMG, n = 111) received daily 200 ml of a whole ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk and a fortified milk group (FMG, n = 69) received daily 200 ml of an UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients, including vitamin A (retinyl palmitate). The vitamin A status of children has been assessed on the basis of serum retinol concentrations, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Children were not dewormed during the study. RESULTS: At the endline, albeit it was observed a significant decrease of VAD prevalence from 49.3% to 4.3% in the fortified group (P < 0.001) and from 45% to 25.2% in the non-fortified group (P = 0.001), the remaining prevalence of VAD in the endline was significantly lower in the fortified milk group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A fortified school milk program seems to be effective to combat VAD among schoolchildren in this rural region of Morocco.
Keywords: Milk fortification, Morocco, school-age children, Vitamin A deficiency
Abstract: The purpose of present study was to investigate the nutritional composition, phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two wild edible fruits viz . Eugenia operculata Roxb. and Antidesma bunius L. from Assam of North-East India. The fruits showed variable amounts of proximate and mineral compositions which are reported herein and discussed. The phytochemical screening of different solvent extracts exhibited the presence of many phytochemicals which are biologically important. The antioxidant activities were examined using DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt), H2 O2 (Hydrogen peroxide) and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. The fruits…showed antioxidant properties with DPPH IC50 value of 92.330±4.163 μg/mL (E. operculata ) and 395.002±3.605 μg/mL (A. bunius ), ABTS IC50 value of 52.660±1.154 μg/mL (E. operculata ) and 105.331±3.055 μg/mL (A. bunius ), H2 O2 IC50 value of 20.566±0.208 μg/mL (E. operculata ) and 24.366±0.057 μg/mL (A. bunius ), and FRAP value of 281.583±8.799 μM TE/g DE (dry extract) in E. operculata and 61.583±3.818 μM TE/g DE in A. bunius . The total phenolic content (TPC) in E. operculata and A. bunius fruits were found to be 226.741±2.099 mg GAE/g DE and 119.356±1.395 mg GAE/g DE, respectively, while the total flavonoid content (TFC) were 108.761±7.015 mg QE/g DE and 64.323±8.828 mg QE/g DE, respectively. The fresh fruits of A. bunius and E. operculata were found to contain vitamin C of 7.30±1.452 mg/100 g and 6.60±1.123 mg/100 g, respectively. The studies revealed that E. operculata fruit had stronger antioxidant activity than A. bunius fruit showing better DPPH, ABTS and H2 O2 scavenging activities, and higher FRAP value, TPC and TFC. TPC and TFC showed a strong positive correlation with antioxidant activity assayed by FRAP. A strong positive correlation of antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS and H2 O2 ) was also found with vitamin C.
Abstract: The objective of the experiment was to investigate - and qualify chemical composition of both Bt and non-Bt cotton crop residues (CCR). The in vitro digestibility of each type of CCR was also determined. Week zero represents the period before introduction of animal to graze on Bt-CCR. From each square meter of 14 square meter cotton residues were cut at 10 cm above the ground level. The components of the crop residues in each square meter were separated in to leaves, bolls and tender branches and then weighed freshly and again after drying in an oven at 105°C for 24hours.…The results revealed significant differences in chemical composition of whole residues, in vitro digestibility of dry matter and in vitro digestibility of protein in Bt CCR. Crude protein and ash were higher in all components of Bt CCR and crude fiber was higher in bolls only. The in vitro digestibility showed lower levels in Bt CCR than in non-Bt CCR.
Keywords: Bt cotton, in vitro, chemical composition
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome and its components have become a more frequent cause of disability and premature death in the world. OBJECTIVE: investigated why the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome components have increased at a different pace in Mexico and Italy, evaluated changes in traditional Mediterranean and Mexican dietary patterns and analysed some socio economic conditions relating with Metabolic Syndrome. METHODS: Using a Food Balance Sheet (FAO), a hierarchical cluster analysis was developed to define dietary patterns for the period 1961 to 2011. The means of each food group from two countries were compared using a Student’s test…for independent samples. The observed differences were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson’s (s) correlation was performed to explore the relationship between Human Development and Gross Domestic Product in the following conditions: global overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity in women and men, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. RESULTS: Total energy availability increased in both countries. Energy derived from cereals decreased, whereas energy from fats, foods of animal origin and vegetable oils increased. Unlike Mexico, apparent sugars consumption did not increase in Italy and olive oil was consumed the most. CONCLUSIONS: Both countries have changed the traditional diet and some correlations between economic conditions and health were statistically significant. Mexico showed a greater disadvantage in socio-economic indicators. It is important to boost education that promotes healthy eating habits and living conditions.
Keywords: Dietary patterns, components of metabolic syndrome, socio economic conditions
Abstract: Middle age is an important period of life whereby unhealthy eating habits may develop. In addition, during old age, certain transitions such as retirement may impact on eating habits and health. This study was undertaken to identify and characterize dietary patterns in the middle aged and elderly people and to assess different factors influencing energy intake. A total of 500 participants aged between 35–65 years old completed a self-reported questionnaire investigating the eating habits, Physical Activity Level (PAL), Nutrition Knowledge (NK) and BMI. A three 24-hour dietary recalls over three weeks were used to estimate energy intake (EI) of the…participants. Statistical tests performed revealed that the mean energy intake was 1919.8 kcal which was lower than the recommended daily allowance. The mean BMI was 24.6 Kg/m2 . Factors such as gender, snacking frequency and nutrition knowledge were found to influence the EI of the participants (p < 0.05). As far as eating habits are concerned, snacks rich in fat and sugar, sweetened beverages, carbohydrates and dairy products were the most consumed food items. Healthy food items such as dairy products were more frequently consumed by the middle and higher socio economic groups as compared to the low income earners. Based on the results of this study, it is not advisable to recommend an increase in energy intake among the middle aged and elderly Mauritians. However, basic nutrition knowledge should be imparted to middle aged and elderly people and an increase in physical activity level can be recommended.
Keywords: Energy intake, eating habits, nutrition knowledge, body mass index, physical activity level
Abstract: BACKGROUND: High dietary salt consumption leads to hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The Eastern Mediterranean region has among the highest prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the world, with high salt consumption. OBJECTIVE: Characterise knowledge, attitudes, motivators and behaviours related to salt consumption in a high-risk Lebanese population and identify factors associated with favourable and unfavourable salt-related behaviour in order to provide an evidence-base for the design of dietary salt-reduction interventions. METHODS: We administered a multicomponent questionnaire on cardiac care patients gathering information on socio-demographic factors, medical history, knowledge of salt consumption and its…impact on health, attitudes towards salt consumption, salt-related behaviour and motivators perceived to impact upon behaviour. We employed multivariate logistic regression modelling to examine associations with salt-related behaviour. RESULTS: We identified several salt-related knowledge gaps, negative behavioural practices and motivators for reducing salt consumption. Specific aspects of knowledge and attitude were found to be associated with positive behaviours. Multivariate logistic regression modelling found gender, attitude score, previous salt reduction advice from a healthcare professional, having hypertension and having diabetes affected the likelihood of specific salt-related behviours being reported. Previous advice from a healthcare professional in particular was associated with improved salt-related behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide an evidence-base for the development of salt-reduction interventions targeting this high risk population, particularly in Lebanon.