Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 7, issue 1
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: A brief review of the research on capillary x-ray focusing optics (the x-ray lens) at the X-Ray Optics Laboratory of the Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics at Beijing Normal University is presented. As a new tool for controlling powerful wide-bandwidth x-ray beams, the x-ray lens has very broad applications in both pure and applied sciences and in industry. Research toward developing such optics continues to grow in Russia, United States, and China. Some applications of x-ray lenses have also been developed. The preliminary results of theoretical and experimental studies on applications of x-ray lenses in x-ray microfluorescence and deep…submicron lithography are quite encouraging. These achievements anticipate the appearance of a new generation of x-ray equipment.
Abstract: Using two small flat mirrors under grazing incidence, we have produced interference patterns from partially coherent x-ray beams at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. By piezoelectrically orienting one mirror around the horizontal plane, both the vertical and horizontal transverse coherence distances of the radiation have been measured. The experimental setup can be used to characterize the coherence properties along x-ray synchrotron beamlines.
Abstract: The influence of the number of bilayers on the optical performances of actual X-UV multilayer interferential mirrors (MIMs) has been studied in order to emphasize the experimental restrictions in the designing of "thick" mirrors used for the development of etched multilayer gratings. Several sets of samples (W/C, Mo/Si) with increasing number of bilayers have been manufactured in the very same conditions by means of a sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction characterization at Cu-Kα radiation (λ = 1.54018 Å) exhibits technical constraints in the achievement of multilayer structures with large number of bilayers. We obtain a gradual loss of reflectivity for…deposition times greater than 1h 30 min to 2h without significant drift of the MIM's geometrical parameters (period and division parameter). In the same time, absolute reflectivity measurements at Cu-Lα radiation (λ = 1.333 nm) emphasize satisfying optical and spectroscopic performances of W/C thick samples ( 150 bilayers).
Abstract: In this study, measurements of the electrical and detection parameters of the Cd1–x Znx Te detectors, within the x-ray diagnostic energy range, have been performed with the aim of optimizing the image quality parameters of these solid-state-ionization detectors. Namely, the leakage current and system capacitance of the x-ray imaging system have been measured as they relate to signal parameters. Similarly, the detected signal and noise contributions were measured and related to the radiation exposure and tube current setting. Furthermore, the detector contrast has been experimentally determined. The experimental results indicate that Cd1–x Znx Te detectors have low leakage current, high…resistivity, and high detector contrast resolution. Therefore, they appear to be very attractive for imaging applications with applications in x-ray digital radiography.
Abstract: The interaction of a sub-picosecond (sub-ps) laser with a high-Z target produces a hard x-ray continuum, but to our knowledge no high-resolution study of the line emission is known. We present here crystal spectroscopy as a tool for the observation of energetic line x-radiation from a sub-ps laser-produced plasma. Reflection properties of flat and bent crystals for x-ray spectroscopy are analyzed theoretically for both the Bragg and the Laue geometries and optimized for a crystal spectroscopy of hard (>50 keV) x-radiation. The crystal setup is optimized for spectroscopic applications with regard to high throughput and spectral resolution. The characteristic tantalum…Kα,β- and Lα,β-line emissions from a sub-ps laser-produced plasma is observed for the first time. A resolving power of about 450 is achieved which is much higher than that for comparable absorption filter techniques (E/ΔE ≈ 15).
Abstract: A new approach to numerical studies of lamellar multilayer gratings is developed. It stands out against the existing modal and differential methods by its applicability to thick multilayer gratings with a small grating period, and also to the case of grazing incidence of radiation. The diffraction properties of multilayer gratings are calculated for x rays with the angles of incidence down to zero. Reflection curves are calculated for multilayer gratings with the grating periods down to 5 nm and the number of bilayers up to 1000. The diffraction pictures are developed for all the range of x-ray radiation (soft and…hard x rays). It is directly demonstrated that the multilayer grating can be regarded as a two-dimensional crystal. Numerical calculations based on the newly proposed method were used for the interpretation of experimental data on the performance of the Ni/C multiplayer grating.