Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 3, issue 3
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: Television area x-ray detectors measure the incident x-ray flux as a function of position. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) expresses the precision of the flux measurement relative to that of an ideal detector. The gain, quantum efficiency, and statistical and noise properties of x-ray convertors, image intensifiers, fiber optics or lenses, and CCD sensors or vidicon tubes are described and used to develop a formulation of the DQE for a general television detector.
Abstract: The applied equipment, the experimental procedures, and the results obtained in the experimental measurement of x-ray spectra from a microfocus x-ray unit are described. The measured spectra of x rays passing through different absorbers are compared to calculated spectra, based on calculation of the linear absorption coefficient, μ, and the spectrum of the incident radiation. The nice fit between the measured and the calculated spectra testifies to the applicability of the presented method for determination of the linear attenuation coefficient. Such calculations form the basis for a more accurate experimental determination of the contrast reducing build-up factor in industrial radiography.
Abstract: We describe under which conditions the x-ray energy dispersive method permits absolute reflectivity, energy band pass, and overlapping order determination on artificial multilayers. For such measurements a Si (Li) detector and a simple x-ray tube are used. Examples of experimental results on W/Si and Mo/Si x-ray mirrors are given for the photon energy range from 5 to 40 KeV.
Abstract: We present a baseline analysis of issues affecting the economic viability of Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography (SXPL). This analysis is intended to serve as a starting point, and to provide an initial assessment of the relative importance of cost factors in a SXPL system. We presume a “conventional” SXPL system design and focus on wafer exposure costs. A baseline model for system component costs and performance specifications is presented, and the dependence of wafer exposure cost on elements of the model is analyzed. Within the guidelines of our model, we find that direct cost items (e.g., cost of the laser…driver) are not nearly as critical as technical performance parameters (e.g., mirror reflectivity) in determining wafer exposure costs.
Abstract: An experimental confirmation of the Yoneda effect in the region of ultrasoft x-ray radiation has been obtained. The angle-dependent scattering distributions from hexagonal BN at different glancing incidence angles and different wavelengths are described. The influence of surface treatment on anomalous scattering parameters is demonstrated. Some theoretical predictions are tested qualitatively.
Abstract: Dynamic diffraction of an x-ray plane wave by a multilayer mirror modulated with a transverse acoustic wave is analyzed on the basis of rigorous multiwave mode theory. Particular attention is given to the case when λs > τ. where λs is the acoustic wavelength and τ is the extinction length. It has been derived that with increasing sound amplitude, splitting arises in every point of the kinematic branch interaction for both λs < τ and λs > τ. Accordingly the rocking curve takes the form of separate rows of peaks of Bragg diffraction into separate orders,…the widths of the peaks being smaller than the width of the Bragg mirror image without modulation. The widths decrease with increasing modulation amplitude.
Abstract: Raman spectra are reported from MoSi2 polycrystalline powder and soft x-ray Mo/Si multilayers. The sharp lines at 323 and 438 cm−1 are all due to crystalline MoSi2 . These lines in the powder sample intensify with annealing. The Raman spectra of as-deposited multilayers shows a broad asymmetric peak, highest at about 480 cm−1 . We attribute this to α-Si which is highly disordered. In contrast to α-Si in semiconductor/semiconductor and semiconductor/dielectric multilayers, in the Mo/Si samples the Raman signal can vanish after modest heating. This provides evidence that the composition of the silicon component of the multilayer changes…even with 200°C annealing. Further annealing also produces the signature for crystalline MoSi2 in the multilayer samples. This is the first report of the characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayers by Raman spectroscopy, and it indicates that Raman spectroscopy may be an effective technique for characterizing these soft x-ray multilayers and may be useful in studying their interfaces.