Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 3, issue 1
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: Two small d-spacing W/B4 C multilayers have been studied at three different x-ray energies CuKα1 , AlKα, and FeLα. Measurements of total reflection, specular and mosaic Bragg reflection, and high resolution studies were made at Cu Kα1 . Multilayer parameters are deduced from the data and the perfection of the multilayer structure is evaluated by Comparison with model Calculations.
Abstract: The sensitivity of Kodak 101-07 film to 1-keV x-ray photons was measured at extremely different dose rates by using two sources: a laser-produced plasma with nanosecond emission and a CW x-ray source. Whereas almost equal sensitivities were obtained at lower exposures, the γ values and the saturation densities at higher exposures differed in the two cases, showing the existence of reciprocity failure.
Abstract: A laminar grating of 1200 1/mm was coated with an x-ray reflecting multilayer coating. The multilayer coating consisted of 41 alternating layers of ReW and C having a period of 2.3 nm. In this paper we report on diffraction measurements of the coated grating at the CuKα emission line. We describe its reflection behavior using a simple theoretical model and derive two diffraction conditions, corresponding to the grating relation and the Bragg law, for which peak intensities are to be observed. We find that grating order efficiencies are modulated by the multilayer reflection.
Abstract: This study examines the dependence of the effective area of the AXAF x-ray telescope, upon the complex dielectric constants of possible mirror coatings, over the energy range 0.1–10 keV. At energies near and above the astrophysically important iron-line complex near 6.7 keV, the effective area is very sensitive to the coating density on the three innermost of the telescope's six mirror pairs. Thus, it is desirable to achieve as high a density as feasible. The telescope's spectral response exhibits sharp features at absorption edges of the coating materials. In view of the exceptional energy resolution of the AXAF spectrometers and…uncertainties in reflectivities (especially near absorption edges), the AXAF goal of 1% accuracy requires both precise x-ray calibration of the telescope and improved modeling of the telescope and calibration sources. Presented here in the form of plots, the results are also available (on floppy disks) in tabular form.
Abstract: We present an outline of various microfabrication techniques and processes, particularly for applications to x-ray optics. Emphasis is placed on both high resolution diffractive components such as gratings and zone plates and multidimensional reflective diffracting structures using multilayer interference mirrors. Some selected examples are also discussed.
Abstract: There is increasing interest worldwide in the use of tightly nested grazing incidence imaging mirrors for high-throughput x-ray telescopes. Diffraction effects of x-ray optical systems are often (justifiably) ignored due to the small wavelength of the x-ray radiation. However, the extremely large obscuration ratio inherent to grazing incidence optical systems produces profound degradation of the diffraction image over that produced by a moderately obscured aperture of the same diameter. Although many of the intended applications are moderate-resolution spectroscopic instruments, there is always a desire for high-resolution imaging as well. In this paper we show that diffraction effects can dominate other…potential error sources at the low-energy (long-wavelength) end of the intended operating spectral range of some existing or planned x-ray telescopes. Parametric performance predictions are presented and compared with x-ray astronomy performance goals.