Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 24, issue 1
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: In this work, algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) is extended by using non-local means (NLM) and total variation (TV) for reduction of artifacts that are due to insufficient projection data. TV and NLM algorithms use different image models and their application in tandem becomes a powerful denoising method that reduces erroneous variations in the image while preserving edges and details. Simulations were performed on a widely used 2D Shepp-Logan phantom to demonstrate performance of the introduced method (ART + TV) NLM and compare it to TV based ART (ART + TV) and ART. The results indicate that (ART + TV) NLM achieves better reconstructions compared to (ART + TV)…and ART.
Keywords: Limited-angle, tomography, total variation, non-local means, insufficient projection
Abstract: In a typical positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) system, the attenuation correction is necessary for PET image reconstruction, which involves a transformation from the CT Hounsfield units (HU) to its linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) at 511 keV. This transformation is usually aided by an empirical bilinear function, followed by the forward projection of the transformed attenuation image. In this paper, we propose a direct method that calculates attenuation factors from CT projections, without using a reconstructed CT image. In this method, the human body is considered as a mixture of three distinct components: air, water and bone. Then, we estimate the…proportions of these three components along each x-ray path and restore the attenuation factor at 511 keV with the known water and bone LACs. Our numerical results show that the proposed method produces as accurate estimation as the conventional HU mapping method.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the validity of using the Multiple Projection Algorithm (MPA) for Breast Tomosynthesis (BT) using real projection images acquired with phantoms at a clinical setting. METHODS: The CIRS-BR3D phantom with ranging thicknesses between 3 cm and 6 cm was used for all image quality evaluations. Five sets of measurements were acquired, each comprised of a 2D mammographic image followed by a set of 25 projections within an arc length of 50°. A reconstruction algorithm based on the MPA was adapted for partial isocentric rotation using a stationary detector. For reference…purposes, a Back Projection (BP) algorithm was also developed for this geometry. The performance of the algorithms was evaluated, in combination with pre-filtering of the projections, in comparative studies that involved also a comparison between tomosynthesis slices and 2D mammograms. RESULTS: Evaluation of tomosynthesis slices reconstructed with BP and MPA showed close performance for the two algorithms with no considerable differences in feature detection, size and appearance of the background tissue with the MPA running faster the overall process. Pre-filtering of the projections, led to better BT images compared to non-filtering. Increased thickness resulted in limited detection of the features of interest, especially the smaller sized ones. In these cases, the filtered BT slices allowed improved visualization due to removed superimposed tissue compared to the 2D images. The different breast-like slab arrangements in phantoms of the same thickness demonstrated a slight influence on the quality of reconstructed features. CONCLUSIONS: The MPA which had been applied previously to reconstruct tomograms from projections acquired at synchrotron facilities, is a time efficient algorithm, and is fully compliant with and can be successfully used in BT clinical systems. Compared to 2D mammography, BT shows advantage in visualizing features of small size and for increased phantom thickness or features within a dense background with superimposed structures.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: We are interested in exploring dedicated, high-performance cardiac CT systems optimized to provide the best tradeoff between system cost, image quality, and radiation dose. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify and evaluate a broad range of CT architectures that could provide an optimal, dedicated cardiac CT solution. METHODS: We identified and evaluated thirty candidate architectures using consistent design choices. We defined specific evaluation metrics related to cost and performance. We then scored the candidates versus the defined metrics. Lastly, we applied a weighting system to combine scores for all metrics into a single overall score for…each architecture. CT experts with backgrounds in cardiovascular radiology, x-ray physics, CT hardware and CT algorithms performed the scoring and weighting. RESULTS: We found nearly a twofold difference between the most and the least promising candidate architectures. Architectures employed by contemporary commercial diagnostic CT systems were among the highest-scoring candidates. We identified six architectures that show sufficient promise to merit further in-depth analysis and comparison. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that contemporary diagnostic CT system architectures outperform most other candidates that we evaluated, but the results for a few alternatives were relatively close. We selected six representative high-scoring candidates for more detailed design and further comparative evaluation.
Abstract: In order to increase the single digital radiography (DR) image information of the composite component in the industry, the different DR images are captured at different voltages so as to get the structural information at different thickness region firstly. Secondly, the original DR images are decomposed by nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT), and the low-frequency subbands are fused by the role of principle component analysis (PCA), and the modified central energy role is used to carry out the high-frequency directional subbands fusion. The false edges are extracted, and the values of the high-frequency subband coefficients of the false edges are set…to be a small value so as to reduce the false edges in the fusion image. Finally, the output image can be obtained by inverse nonsubsampled contourlet transform. The experimental results show that the fused DR image brings more detailed information, and the structure of the component can be seen clearly, so it is useful to the fast and accurate quality judgements of the component.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The outstanding functional importance of the brain implies a strong need for brain imaging modalities. However, the current imaging approaches that target the brain in rodents remain suboptimal. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this paper, X-ray propagation-based phase contrast imaging combined with equally sloped tomography (PPCI-EST) was employed to nondestructively investigate the mouse brain. RESULTS: The grey and white matters, which have extremely small differences in electron density, were clearly discriminated. The fine structures, including the corpus callosum (cc), the optic chiasma (ox) and the caudate putamen (CPu), were revealed. Compared to the filtered back projection…reconstruction, the PPCI-EST significantly reduce projection number while maintaining sufficient image quality. CONCLUSIONS: It could be a potential tool for fast and low-dose phase-contrast imaging to biomedical specimens.
Abstract: This study proposes a novel geometrical force constraint method for 3-D vasculature modeling and angiographic image simulation. For this method, space filling force, gravitational force, and topological preserving force are proposed and combined for the optimization of the topology of the vascular structure. The surface covering force and surface adhesion force are constructed to drive the growth of the vasculature on any surface. According to the combination effects of the topological and surface adhering forces, a realistic vasculature can be effectively simulated on any surface. The image projection of the generated 3-D vascular structures is simulated according to the perspective…projection and energy attenuation principles of X-rays. Finally, the simulated projection vasculature is fused with a predefined angiographic mask image to generate a realistic angiogram. The proposed method is evaluated on a CT image and three generally utilized surfaces. The results fully demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Keywords: Vascular tree, simulation, force constraint, angiogram
Abstract: In this work a lossless wavelet-fractal image coder is proposed. The process starts by compressing and decompressing the original image using wavelet transformation and fractal coding algorithm. The decompressed image is removed from the original one to obtain a residual image which is coded by using Huffman algorithm. Simulation results show that with the proposed scheme, we achieve an infinite peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with higher compression ratio compared to typical lossless method. Moreover, the use of wavelet transform speeds up the fractal compression algorithm by reducing the size of the domain pool. The compression results of several…welding radiographic images using the proposed scheme are evaluated quantitatively and compared with the results of Huffman coding algorithm.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-imaging in microdefects studies of restored dental samples. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the defects in restorations done by two different resin systems on teeth samples using synchrotron based micro-imaging techniques namely Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) and micro-computed tomography (MCT). With this aim acquired image quality was also compared with routinely used RVG (Radiovisiograph). METHODS: Crowns of human teeth samples were fractured mechanically involving only enamel and dentin, without exposure of pulp chamber and were divided into two groups depending on the restorative composite…materials used. Group A samples were restored using a submicron Hybrid composite material and Group B samples were restored using a Nano-Hybrid restorative composite material. Synchrotron based PCI and MCT was performed with the aim of visualization of tooth structure, composite resin and their interface. RESULTS: The quantitative and qualitative comparison of phase contrast and absorption contrast images along with MCT on the restored teeth samples shows comparatively large number of voids in Group A samples. CONCLUSIONS: Quality assessment of dental restorations using synchrotron based micro-imaging suggests Nano-Hybrid resin restorations (Group B) are better than Group A.
Abstract: PURPOSE: A novel diagnostic method using the standard deviation (SD) value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) by diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is applied for differential diagnosis of primary chest cancers, metastatic tumors and benign tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 27 patients (20 males, 7 female; age, 15–85; mean age, 68) who had thoracic mass lesions in the last three years and underwent an MRI chest examination at our institution. In total, 29 mass lesions were analyzed using SD of ADC and DWI. Lesions were divided into five groups: Primary lung cancers (N = 10);…esophageal cancers (N = 5); metastatic tumors (N = 8); benign tumors (N = 3); and inflammatory lesions (N = 3). Quantitative assessment of MRI parameters of mass lesions was performed. The ADC value was acquired based on the average of the entire tumor area. The error-plot, t -test and the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUC) were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The SD of ADC value (mean±SD) was (4.867±1.359)×10–4 mm2 /sec in primary lung cancers, and (3.598±0.350)×10–4 mm2 /sec in metastatic tumors. The SD of ADC values of primary lung cancers and metastatic tumors (P < 0.05) were significantly different and the AUC was 0.800 (P < 0.05). The means of SD of ADC values was 4.532±1.406×10–4 mm2 /sec and 2.973±0.364×10–4 mm2 /sec for malignant tumors (including primary lung cancers, esophageal cancers) and benign tumors with respectively. The mean of SD of ADC values between malignant chest tumors and benign chest tumors was shown significant difference (P < 0.01). The values of AUC was 0.967 between malignant chest tumors and benign chest tumors (P < 0.05). The ADC values for primary lung cancers, metastatic tumors and benign tumors were not significantly difference (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mean of SD of ADC value by DWI can be used for differential diagnosis of chest lesions.
Keywords: Diffusion-weighted imaging, SD of ADC, AUC