Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 22, issue 3
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: The dual-modality systems combined fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can provide molecular and anatomical information of small animals simultaneously. Except for anatomic localization, micro-CT should also offer boundary of different organs as reconstruction priors for FMT, which is more challenging than acquisition of structural information. In this paper, we propose a framework to extract structural priors of a living mouse with micro-CT. The iodinated lipid emulsion contrast agent was…adopted to enhance the contrast of the soft tissues of the mouse. Then organs in thorax and abdomen were segmented with different approaches depending on the characteristics of the organs. Bone, lung, heart, liver, spleen, and muscles were separately segmented. And the results were compared with that manually segmented. The Tanimoto coefficient and the relative volume difference of segmented slices were measured to be 91.28 ± 5.78 and 0.27 ± 3.15, respectively. In our simulation study of FMT reconstruction, the errors of measured position and concentration of the fluorophore with priors declined by 89.7% and 79.6% in thorax, as well as 80.8% and 78.3% in abdomen, respectively, compared with the results without priors. The proposed scheme will make FMT reconstruction much more reliable and practical in small animal study.
Abstract: The general gaseous ionization detectors are not suitable for high energy X-ray industrial computed tomography (HEICT) because of their inherent limitations, especially low detective efficiency and large volume. The goal of this study was to investigate a new type of gaseous detector to solve these problems. The novel detector was made by a metal foil as X-ray convertor to improve the conversion efficiency, and the Gas Electron Multiplier (hereinafter "GEM") was used as electron amplifier to…lessen its volume. The detective mechanism and signal formation of the detector was discussed in detail. The conversion efficiency was calculated by using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, and the transport course of photon and secondary electron avalanche in the detector was simulated with the Maxwell and Garfield codes. The result indicated that this detector has higher conversion efficiency as well as less volume. Theoretically this kind of detector could be a perfect candidate for replacing the conventional detector in HEICT.
Keywords: High energy X-ray, industrial computer tomography, gaseous detectors, GEM
Abstract: PURPOSE: Patient radiation dose during Computed Tomography (CT) guided biopsy procedures is determined by both acquisition technical parameters and physician practice. The potential effect of the physician practice is of concern. This study is to investigate the effects of those intangibles on patient radiation dose. METHODS: Patient radiation dose from 252 patients who underwent CT guided biopsy from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively studied. Ten physicians who used conventional intermittent shots, low mA dose…saving feature, or both were included in the study. The patient dose reports were retrieved and the total dose length products (DLPs) were analyzed. Linear regression analysis performed between various variables and reported dose. Patient detriment index (PDI) was developed, which sets threshold (standard of practice) for comparing physician practice with their peers. Odds ratio was calculated to determine odds of a group of patients receiving dose above threshold when compared to another group. RESULTS: Median DLP among ten physicians was 1194 mGy-cm. There was a significant difference (p< 0.01) between reported DLPs doses when physicians used dose saving feature vs. when feature not used (539.8 ± 169.4 mGy-cm vs. 1269.7 ± 659.0 mGy-cm). In general, physicians who used dose saving feature had lower relative PDIs (< 1) compared to the PDIs (> 1) without the dose feature. Odds ratio estimate of 7.7 at 95% confidence level indicates that the odds of a group receiving a high dose depends on practitioner. CONCLUSION: Adjustments of practice habits, use of dose saving features or both may be needed to improve patient care for CT biopsy.
Abstract: The goal of this preliminary study was to perform an image quality comparison of high energy phase sensitive imaging with low energy conventional imaging at similar radiation doses. The comparison was performed with the following phantoms: American College of Radiology (ACR), contrast-detail (CD), acrylic edge and tissue-equivalent. Visual comparison of the phantom images indicated comparable or improved image quality for all phantoms. Quantitative comparisons were performed through ACR and CD observer studies, both of which…indicated higher image quality in the high energy phase sensitive images. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of high energy phase sensitive imaging to overcome existing challenges with the clinical implementation of phase contrast imaging and improve the image quality for a similar radiation dose as compared to conventional imaging near typical mammography energies. In addition, the results illustrate the capability of phase sensitive imaging to sustain the image quality improvement at high x-ray energies and for breast simulating phantoms, both of which indicate the potential to benefit fields such as mammography. Future studies will continue to investigate the potential for dose reduction and image quality improvement provided by high energy phase sensitive imaging.
Abstract: Linear scan computed tomography (CT) is a promising imaging configuration with high scanning efficiency while the data set is under-sampled and angularly limited for which high quality image reconstruction is challenging. In this work, an edge guided total variation minimization reconstruction (EGTVM) algorithm is developed in dealing with this problem. The proposed method is modeled on the combination of total variation (TV) regularization and iterative edge detection strategy. In the proposed method,…the edge weights of intermediate reconstructions are incorporated into the TV objective function. The optimization is efficiently solved by applying alternating direction method of multipliers. A prudential and conservative edge detection strategy proposed in this paper can obtain the true edges while restricting the errors within an acceptable degree. Based on the comparison on both simulation studies and real CT data set reconstructions, EGTVM provides comparable or even better quality compared to the non-edge guided reconstruction and adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets method. With the utilization of weighted alternating direction TV minimization and edge detection, EGTVM achieves fast and robust convergence and reconstructs high quality image when applied in linear scan CT with under-sampled data set.
Keywords: Linear scan computed tomography, limited angle problem, edge guided reconstruction, weighted total variation minimization, alternating direction method
Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate variations in mobile target length induced by sinusoidal motion in helical (HCT) and axial CT (ACT) imaging. A mathematical model was derived that predicts the measured broadening of the apparent lengths of mobile targets and its dependence on motion parameters, target size, and imaging couch speed in CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three mobile targets of differing lengths and sizes were constructed of tissue-equivalent gel material and embedded into artificial lung…phantom. Respiratory motion was mimicked with a mobile phantom that moves in one-dimension along the superior-inferior direction with sinusoidal motion patterns. A mathematical model was derived to predict quantitatively the variations of apparent lengths for mobile targets and its dependence on phantom and imaging couch motion parameters in HCT and ACT. The model predictions were verified by length measurements of the mobile phantom targets that were imaged with the different motion patterns using CT imaging. RESULTS: The measured lengths of mobile targets enlarged or shrunk depending on the phantom motion parameters that include phantom speed, amplitude, frequency, phase and speed of the imaging couch. The target length variations were significant where some targets doubled lengths or shrunk to less than half of their actual length. The apparent lengths of mobile targets decreased if the target was moving in the same direction as the imaging couch motion and increased if the mobile target was moving opposed to imaging couch in both HCT and ACT. The model predicts well the variations in the mobile target apparent lengths and their dependence on the motion parameters. CONCLUSION: The measured and model variations of apparent lengths of mobile targets are considerable and may affect the accuracy of tumor volumes obtained from HCT and ACT. This mathematical model provides a method to quantitatively assess the length variations of mobile targets and their dependence on motion parameters of the phantom and imaging system which may have potential applications in the fields of diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy.
Abstract: Utilization of panoramic X-ray device is getting wider. Panoramic X-ray has low resolution than general X-ray device and it occurs to distortion by deviation of image synthesis. Due to structural problems, it has been used restrictively to identify of tooth structure, not for whole head. Therefore, it designed and produced panoramic X-ray device which is possible to diagnostic coverage can be extended and had to be adjusted interval control between X-ray generator and image processing for…whole of Maxillofacia's diagnosis. Produced panoramic X-ray device is composed basically of short image synthesis. In addition, it was confirmed the results by used the device which was applied deviation of the brightness of the image, filter to improve the location of the deviation and interpolation method. In this study, it was used 13 images including the front. It occurs to brightness deviation, position deviation, and geometric correction when synthesis of image, but it had been solved by deviation improvement software and a change of CCD camera's scan line which is used for image acquisition. Therefore, it confirmed expansion possibility of utilization range to commonly used panoramic X-ray device.
Keywords: Image processing unit, panoramic X-ray, image compensation, image correction
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The hybrid convolution kernel technique for computed tomography (CT) is known to enable the depiction of an image set using different window settings. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to decrease the number of artifacts in the hybrid convolution kernel technique for head CT and to determine whether our improved combined multi-kernel head CT images enabled diagnosis as a substitute for both brain (low-pass kernel-reconstructed) and bone (high-pass kernel-reconstructed) images. METHODS: Forty-four patients…with nondisplaced skull fractures were included. Our improved multi-kernel images were generated so that pixels of >100 Hounsfield unit in both brain and bone images were composed of CT values of bone images and other pixels were composed of CT values of brain images. Three radiologists compared the improved multi-kernel images with bone images. RESULTS: The improved multi-kernel images and brain images were identically displayed on the brain window settings. All three radiologists agreed that the improved multi-kernel images on the bone window settings were sufficient for diagnosing skull fractures in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: This improved multi-kernel technique has a simple algorithm and is practical for clinical use. Thus, simplified head CT examinations and fewer images that need to be stored can be expected.
Keywords: Combined multi-kernel, head computed tomography, reconstruction kernel, window settings
Abstract: To quantify the trade-offs of dose and image quality among pre-loaded automatic exposure control (AEC) options in digital mammography, two AEC tables from the Hologic Selenia digital mammography system were compared: the default AEC "table 0" and AEC "table 1". Realistically-shaped phantoms consisting of tissue-equivalent material of various thicknesses (4.5 cm–7 cm) were imaged to obtain a figure of merit (FOM), the squared contrast-to-noise ratio per mean glandular dose. To relate the results to…pathological findings and to evaluate the overall performance, the measured contrast-to-noise ratios were applied to simulated lesions on the anthropomorphic breast phantom images, producing various lesion configurations which were blindly scored. It was found that the AEC table 1 improves the low contrast FOM by 11% to 20% for the breast thicknesses of 4.5–6 cm. However, for the 7 cm thick breast, the AEC table 1 decreases the low contrast FOM by 17%. For microcalcifications, the AEC table 1 improves the FOM slightly for the breast thicknesses of 4.5--6 cm and decreases it by 18% at a thickness of 7 cm. The lesion simulation showed enhanced contrast due to the AEC table 1 for the breast thicknesses of 5 cm, 6 cm, and 7 cm, but the enhancement gradually reduces as the thickness increases. The lesion reading showed that the microcalcification detection was scored significantly higher from the AEC table 1 for the thicknesses 5 cm, 6 cm, and 7 cm. The corresponding improvement of mass detection scores was also observed but not consistently significant over the thickness range.
Keywords: Automatic exposure control, digital mammography, figure of merit, mean glandular dose, lesion simulation
Abstract: A Monte Carlo simulation was applied to study the energy dependence on the transverse dose distribution of microplanar beam radiation therapy (MRT) for deep-seated tumors. The distribution was found to be the peak (in-beam) dose and the decay from the edge of the beam down to the valley. The area below the same valley dose level (valley region) was decreased with the increase in the energy of X-rays at the same beam separation. To optimize the MRT, we made…the following two assumptions: the therapeutic gain may be attributed to the efficient recovery of normal tissue caused by the beam separation; and a key factor for the efficient recovery of normal tissue depends on the area size of the valley region. Based on these assumptions and the results of the simulated dose distribution, we concluded that the optimum X-ray energy was in the range of 100–300 keV depending on the effective peak dose to the target tumors and/or tolerable surface dose. In addition, we proposed parameters to be studied for the optimization of MRT to deep-seated tumors.
Keywords: Microbeam radiation therapy, X-rays, Monte Carlo simulation, transverse dose distribution, energy dependence