Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 13, issue 4
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: A nonlinear-optical protocol of biosensing is demonstrated with a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber. This protocol involves phase-matched four-wave mixing of millijoule nanosecond laser pulses guided by photonic band gaps of hollow fibers with a two-dimensionally periodic cladding and a core diameter of about 50 μm. Raman resonances related to the stretching vibrations of water molecules inside the hollow fiber core are detected in the spectrum of the four-wave mixing signal, suggesting phase-matched coherent…anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hollow photonic-crystal fibers as a convenient sensing technique for condensed-phase biospecies adsorbed on the inner fiber walls and trace gas detection, including exhale-gas diagnostics.
Abstract: We have created for the first time the photonic crystal optical fiber having the photonic band gap in the visible and NIR range of spectrum. This fiber consists of concentric layers of air holes of variable diameter with hollow cores. We have carried out studies on their transmission spectra formation. We have displayed the influence of geometry and arrangement of a fiber on its photonic band gap width and structure. It was established that changes of…geometrical structure of a fiber allows one to control effectively the width of the photonic band gap that gives new opportunities to guide visible and NIR light.
Abstract: The polycapillary lenses allow realizing compact x-ray analytical devices. X-ray capillary optics is based on the principle of transportation of radiation by means of repeatable reflection of radiation from a smooth surface of internal walls of glass capillary layers. The developed policapillary structures are used for formation of converging, diverging, and parallel beams in a wide spectral range. The mono- and polycapillary structures are produced using fiber glass technology, which consists of the repeatable pulling flown…down of packages in similarity, sintering of preparations and formation form of capillary lenses. The analysis of technology of manufacturing of polycapillary compact x-ray systems is offered.
Abstract: The objective of the present work is the measurement of diffraction patterns of polycrystalline materials in a short time. A method is proposed which opens possibilities to generate real time diffraction patterns using a normal x-ray CCD camera without cooling. The key element is an effectively focusing capillary lens. Using the transmission focusing scheme according to Guinier diffraction patterns of molybdenum and zirconium polycrystals have been recorded. A 30 Watt x-ray tube with Mo anode and…a capillary lens with a focus spot of 35 μm diameter were employed for that purpose. Procedures to further improve the quality of the diffraction pattern are discussed.
Keywords: X-ray diffraction, capillary optics, capillary lens, real time imaging, time resolved diffractometry, x-ray camera
Abstract: Partially crystalline cellulose microfibrils are wound helically around the longitudinal axis of the wood cell. Microfibril angle distributions were determined using x-rays from single cells and slices of wood. Differences in results are discussed using model calculations, which are based on diffraction conditions. Microfibril angle distributions (MFA) in single wood cells were measured through a bordered pit using microbeam produced by capillary optics and synchrotron radiation. For all cells measured, the MFA…distribution was asymmetric and narrow with full-width at half-maximum around 18 degrees. The mean MFA distributions of slices of wood were determined using a conventional sealed x-ray tube. MFA distributions of single cells differed from those determined from slices of wood. On the basis of model calculations the differences were attributed to the variation in MFA distributions of different cells of the wood sample, in the orientation of the cells, and in the cross-sectional shape of the cells. These factors are hard to take into account in data analysis, thus microdiffraction experiments offer a unique means for studies of the detailed structure of single wood cells.
Abstract: Opportunity of the developing of the X-ray transparent systems for on-line recording of spatial distribution of hard X-rays is considered. The systems also make it possible to record images with the submicron spatial resolution. A system including lead-free glass microcapillary plate filled with X-ray phosphor which weakly absorbs X-radiation is proposed.