Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 13, issue 3
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: The capability of synchrotron radiation (SR) is demonstrated by its new applications in the field of criminal investigation. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with SR provides very high signal-to-noise ratios and showed concentration profiles of trace elements in forensic samples such as illegal drugs and automobile coating chips. The profiles are so unique as to be called "chemical fingerprints" and have become valuable information to investigative authorities. Also, x-ray refraction contrast imaging technique reveals specific…structures of materials that can be never observed by optical examination. Such new techniques with SR are making an innovation in police investigations.
Abstract: Level set methods are useful tools for medical image segmentation. In this paper, a novel image segmentation technique was developed that combines region statistical information with the level set method. The classical level set methods depend mainly on local edge-based image features to guide the convergence of the contour. This makes the method sensitive to noise and the initial estimate. The method has two features. The first is that it uses obtain region-based information by a…mixture model. The second feature is that we combine region statistical information with curvature-based regularization penalizing the length of curve. The method is useful for a large variety of segmentation problems. We present some preliminary experimental results using synthetic images and, magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) images to demonstrate our methods. The experimental results show that by incorporating region statistical information into the level set framework, an accurate and robust segmentation can be achieved.
Keywords: Level set method, region statistical information, mixture model, and Image segmentation
Abstract: Recent progress in photoacoustic imaging has shown its potential in biomedical imaging of biological tissues in vivo because it can offer the imaging contrast comparable to the optical techniques and the imaging resolution similar to the ultrasonic techniques. However, its imaging depth and contrast have a dependence on the optical properties of surrounding medium that has not yet investigated. Therefore, the understanding of how the tissue optical properties affect the performance of photoacoustic imaging would be…important. In this paper, we investigate the influence of absorption and scattering coefficients of surrounding tissue on the measured acoustic signal generated from the photoacoustic source of interest. In the experiments, tissue phantoms were constructed with a range of optical properties. We used the intralipid solution to control the scattering property, and the methylene blue to control the absorption property of the phantom. The results show that the absorption and scattering coefficient of surrounding medium is one of major factors that affect the photoacoustic imaging depth and contrast.
Abstract: Computed microtomography (μCT) is an imaging technique that produces virtual slices of an object, based on a set of x-ray images taken while the object is stepwise rotated. The stack of slices is calculated with a backprojection algorithm, it demands that the entire object remains within the x-ray beam for all observed angles. During region-of-interest (ROI) tomography however, one zooms in on a small part of the object. As a consequence the above condition is no…longer fulfilled; the input data become incomplete and reconstructed slices are corrupted. In this study we show that, if we are not interested in grayscale values but only in geometrical information, conventional backprojection algorithms still perform well for ROI tomography. We demonstrate this with ROI scans performed on several phantom objects and we show ROI images of the gerbil hearing organ. We found that the resolution could considerably be improved and small details, not visible in a conventional full object scan, can be revealed by a ROI scan. One can use the benefits of ROI-μCT in situations where physical constrains are such that large parts of the object exceed the field of view (FOV), or where a very high magnification is required.
Keywords: Microtomography, region of interest, temporal bone, middle ear
Abstract: Currently, there is an increasing interest in tissue optical clearing by the use of hyperosmotic agents due to its consequence in increasing light penetration into tissue. This has shown a great potential in enhancing the capabilities of non-invasive light-based diagnostic and imaging techniques. In this study, we introduce the oleic acid, a mono-unsaturated fatty acid, as an enhancer and investigate how its different molarities exert its effect on optical clearing of skin tissue in vitro. Experimental…results from near infrared spectroscopy and mass loss measurement showed that OA01PG40, i.e. 0.1 M oleic acid in 40% propylene glycol, obtained the best clearing effect. Meanwhile, it is noticed that the molarity of oleic acid in propylene glycol is important when used in optical clearing of skin tissue in vitro.