Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation - Volume 37, issue 3
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Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation will provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of information about the major areas that constitute vocational rehabilitation.
Periodically, there will be topics that are directed either to specific themes such as long-term care or different disability groups such as those with psychiatric impairment. Often a guest editor who is an expert in the given area will provide leadership on a specific topic issue. However, all articles received directly or submitted for a special issue are welcome for peer review. The emphasis will be on publishing rehabilitation articles that have immediate application for helping rehabilitation counselors, psychologists and other professionals in providing direct services to people with disabilities.
Original research articles, review articles, program descriptions, and case studies will be considered for publication. Ideas for special topical issues are welcomed as well.
Abstract: Spain was one of the first countries in Europe to initiate supported employment. However, its development compared with sheltered employment has not been positive. This article attempts to answer why we have not been able to make this decisive step forward towards the ordinary labor market. One of the keys to this has been the priorities in the social policies reflected at the various levels of financial investment in both types of employment. Where funding has gone hand-in-hand with supported employment programs, the results have enabled a significant increase in instances of vocational integration in competitive employment. Another key to…explaining the lack of progress is pressure and influence in the face of sector management that defends sheltered employment. The article concludes with proposals for forward movement, and stresses that public policies and financial investment need to aim for the highest possible level of integration and normalization with regard to people who are significantly limited in their day-to-day functioning.
Keywords: Supported employment, sheltered employment, ordinary employment, disability, social policies
Abstract: In The Netherlands, Supported Employment is working through a European initiative: HELIOS and a project with international partnerships with Northern Ireland, Ireland, Portugal and later Spain. Successful experiences have come about, mainly in the region of Rotterdam, and have accounted for the subsequent creation of an Association of The Netherlands and the broader implementation of this alternative workplace model. Currently supported employment with an emphasis on job coaching is used, although there is a major struggle against the sheltered employment centers and disability allowances, which limit participation in employment. A new law proposes a better framework more focused on developing…the skills of people and encouraging them into employment. There is suggestion of the need to restructure the reality of sheltered employment, enhance the figure of the job coach and encourage the assessment, analysis of results and effectiveness of organizations, especially in the current atmosphere of economic insufficiency.
Abstract: Supported Employment (SE) was implemented within the vocational rehabilitation systems of the Nordic countries at a different pace and to various degrees. Sweden and Norway took to SE most rapidly during the 1990s, followed by Finland and Iceland. In Denmark, SE is still virtually an unknown concept, although there are practices that resemble and are inspired by SE. Several reports [1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 16–21, 24, 25, 28, 29, 32–36, 39, 41] have indicated that SE in the Nordic countries is a successful approach to support disabled job seekers to get and keep a job in the ordinary labour…market. However, SE is still not a large proportion of all work-related measures for people with vocational disabilities; in the Nordic countries the traditional sheltered sector and ‘train then place’ measures of vocational rehabilitation still prevail . SE is typically provided as an “add-on” service by agencies that financially and skills-wise are based on traditional forms of pre-vocational training, sheltered workshops and municipality day care activities. To make quality-based SE services available on a widespread basis, the national levels will require strong government support. The policy-administrative levels must address the domination of the traditional vocational rehabilitation model and define the particular inclusion skills competence to be expected by the professional job coach/employment specialist of SE.
Keywords: Supported Employment (SE), government support, sheltered workshops, open labor market, place–train, train–place
Abstract: The Disability Services Act of 1986 brought about major changes in the way disability services were provided in Australia. The introduction of open employment services for people with high support needs has been lifechanging for many people with disabilities. People with significant disabilities are now in open employment in far larger numbers and there have been consistent efforts by government to develop the policy framework to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the program. The number of people with disability accessing open employment services has experienced significant growth over time – an overall growth of 186% from 1998–99 to 2009–2010.…However it is now clear that these reforms have had differential effects for different groups of people with disabilities. The initial growth in the number of people with intellectual disability participating in the open employment program has stalled. There is a need to examine what can be done to improve open employment participation for people with intellectual disabilities in Australia.
Keywords: Open employment, employment for people with disabilities
Abstract: Introduction: The UK has a significant body of equality legislation to underpin social inclusion of disabled people through employment. It has a mixed model of employment that includes factories, individualized employment support and supported employment. It does not have dedicated funding for supported employment however and these services rely on a jigsaw of funding. There has been a shift to bring people with health problems on welfare benefit into employment on health and cost grounds. Results: 45.6% of disabled people are employed compared to 76.2% for non-disabled people. Relative measures of employment advantage suggest that the situation for disabled people…is getting worse. There has been a shift in the last 10 years from allocation to a programme to a more individualised service response and from factory to community employment. People with learning disabilities, autism and mental health problems remain relative poorly served. Conclusions: If inclusion is to be achieved there is a need for adequate investment in the intensity and type of employment support appropriate to the needs of the person. Consideration should be given to policies that improve the availability of jobs, flexibility and inclusiveness among employers as well as measure that focus on the disabled person.
Keywords: Employment, disability, policy, United Kingdom
Abstract: Several researchers stress the importance of listening to autistic adults' own experiences of work and related issues. This paper critically explores an ambivalent discourse of empowerment using notions of employment and work life in the Swedish autistic self-advocacy movement. The discourse analysis is based on articles from the Swedish autistic self-advocacy magazine Empowerment. In the data, three key themes linked to the notion of work are identified: alternative meanings of a “real job”, formulations of work-related problems, and solutions to these problems. We identify two storylines. The first, more dominant one, we call the recreated norm storyline. This storyline, in…line with an individual/medical perspective on autism as deficit, represents autism as causing people with autism to have difficulties finding and keeping jobs in the open labour market and as entailing employment support. The second, counter narrative we call the challenged norm storyline. In line with the social model of disability, it focuses on structural barriers and discrimination against people with autism on the labour market.
Keywords: Adults with autism, empowerment, self-advocacy, work, labour market, real jobs, autistic self-advocacy movement