Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation - Volume 33, issue 1
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Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation will provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of information about the major areas that constitute vocational rehabilitation.
Periodically, there will be topics that are directed either to specific themes such as long-term care or different disability groups such as those with psychiatric impairment. Often a guest editor who is an expert in the given area will provide leadership on a specific topic issue. However, all articles received directly or submitted for a special issue are welcome for peer review. The emphasis will be on publishing rehabilitation articles that have immediate application for helping rehabilitation counselors, psychologists and other professionals in providing direct services to people with disabilities.
Original research articles, review articles, program descriptions, and case studies will be considered for publication. Ideas for special topical issues are welcomed as well.
Abstract: The current study was conducted to identify challenges in engaging consumers with disabilities from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds and effective strategies to overcome these challenges in the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) system. Twenty one VR counselors from a large Midwestern state were nominated by their supervisors to participate in semi-structured qualitative interviews because of exemplary work over more than five years. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative analysis. Counselors identified the following challenges for some of their multicultural consumers: (1) lack of knowledge about their responsibilities and role within the VR system; (2) lack of a vision and…plan for their future success; and (3) lack of a sense of efficacy about their ability to be successful. These challenges are related to experiences of oppression. Effective strategies were related to processes of empowerment within the context of the therapeutic relationship. Study findings have implications for the VR system related to providing support and training to VR counselors and VR counseling students on how to work effectively with consumers with disabilities from diverse ethnic backgrounds.
Abstract: Effective vocational rehabilitation services play a critical role in improving the economic wellbeing and quality of life of many people with disabilities, yet little is known about the factors that predict the use of vocational rehabilitation (VR) services among ethnic minority groups in the United States. This study applies the Andersen Behavioral Model of Service Utilization as a theoretical framework to identify predisposing (sexual orientation, ethnicity, racial identification), enabling (poverty, knowledge of vocational rehabilitation, receipt of public benefits), and need (health perception, confidence with job seeking, confidence with job maintenance) variables to predict the factors associated with the use of…vocational rehabilitation services among a sample of 168 Latino men with HIV/AIDS from New York State. Respondents completed the National Working Positive Coalition – Vocational Development and Employment Needs Survey and key predictor variables were analyzed using a hierarchical logistic regression. Puerto Rican ethnicity (p < 0.01), having knowledge of VR (p < 0.001), and having received public benefits (p = 0.04) increased odds of VR use. As confidence in ability to maintain a job increased, so did odds of VR use (p = 0.01). Study limitations, practical implications, and future research recommendations are included.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine employment predictors for women of color with psychiatric disabilities who received serves from state and federal vocational rehabilitation agencies and women of color with psychiatric disabilities who receive Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) benefits and services from state and federal vocational rehabilitation agencies using logistical regression regarding data from the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) dataset. Demographic variables and vocational rehabilitation (VR) services were used to predict employment outcome. The sample size (N = 10,238) consisted of women of color with a psychiatric diagnosis. Within this group of women included 820 women…of color who received TANF benefits. The results indicated that some demographic variables and VR services had a significant impact on employment outcomes. Regarding the women who did not receive TANF, educational level, employment status, and 11 vocational rehabilitation services predicted a successful employment outcome. Regarding TANF recipients, employment status and four vocational rehabilitation services predicted a successful employment outcome. Practice, research, and pedagogical implications regarding the results are discussed at the end of this manuscript.
Keywords: Employment, women of color, psychiatric disabilities, vocational rehabilitation
Abstract: This paper is the last in a series of quantitative studies about Supported Employment in Spain, looking at how the situation has changed since the previous studies. The study is based on an Internet survey of all organizations participating in the national ECA Caja Madrid program. The results show a significant increase in the number of organizations that provide Supported Employment programs, in total 202, delivering services to 23,342 users in Spain. This paper analyses the characteristics of the services provided, the users, the professionals and the funding.
Abstract: This study examined the impact of acculturation patterns and related variables on employment and vocational rehabilitation (VR) experiences of Latinos with disabilities. Acculturation and related variables of acculturative stress, English proficiency, educational attainment, familial support, and cultural mistrust were investigated using quantitative and qualitative methods. First, the Disability and Employment Survey was completed by 59 Latinos with disabilities. Second, 9 Latinos with disabilities participated in either an English- or Spanish-speaking focus group. Findings revealed that participants with lower identification with the United States cultural domain (USCD) struggled more with employment and VR outcomes than those with stronger identification. Specifically, lower…identification with the USCD was associated with limited English proficiency and educational attainment and increased acculturative stress, which in turn tended to negatively impact employment and VR experiences post-disability. Among participants with higher identification with the USCD, familial support was an important factor when seeking employment. Finally, irrespective of acculturation pattern, cultural mistrust toward the VR system was evident and may be a barrier to seeking such services. Findings from this study may have policy and programmatic implications to improve employment opportunities and VR services for Latinos with disabilities.
Abstract: Employment outcomes of racial and ethnic minority groups with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been thoroughly examined in the research literature beyond five years. The objective of this study was to examine differences in employment outcomes 10 years after TBI among racial and ethnic minorities. Using a multi-center, nationwide database, 382 participants (194 minorities and 188 whites) with primarily moderate to severe TBI from 16 TBI Model System Centers were examined. A logistic regression model indicated that the odds of being competitively employed versus not competitively employed at 10 years follow-up were 2.370 times greater for whites as compared…to minorities after adjusting for age at injury, pre-injury employment status, cause of injury, and total length of stay (LOS). In addition, the odds of being competitively employed at 10 years follow-up versus not being competitively employed ranged from being 1.485 to 2.553 greater for those who were younger, employed at injury, had shorter total LOS, and non-violent injuries, respectively. This study supports previous research illustrating that compared to whites, employment is less promising for minorities after TBI both short and long term. Recommendations are suggested to help rehabilitation professionals target the specific needs of minorities with TBI in order to address employment disparities through culturally-based interventions and service delivery.