Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation - Volume 23, issue 3
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Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation will provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of information about the major areas that constitute vocational rehabilitation.
Periodically, there will be topics that are directed either to specific themes such as long-term care or different disability groups such as those with psychiatric impairment. Often a guest editor who is an expert in the given area will provide leadership on a specific topic issue. However, all articles received directly or submitted for a special issue are welcome for peer review. The emphasis will be on publishing rehabilitation articles that have immediate application for helping rehabilitation counselors, psychologists and other professionals in providing direct services to people with disabilities.
Original research articles, review articles, program descriptions, and case studies will be considered for publication. Ideas for special topical issues are welcomed as well.
Abstract: Using the Integrated Mission System of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the employment discrimination experience of Americans with mental retardation is documented. Researchers compare and contrast the key dimensions of workplace discrimination involving Americans with mental retardation and persons with other physical, sensory, and neurological impairments. Specifically, the researchers examine demographic characteristics of the CPs; the industry designation, location, and size of employers against whom complaints are filed; the nature of discrimination…(i.e., type of adverse action) alleged to occur; and the legal outcome or Resolution of these complaints. Chi-square analyses revealed that persons with mental retardation were more likely to encounter discrimination involving matters of involuntary termination (discharge), involuntary resignation (constructive discharge), and harassment. They were less likely to encounter discrimination related to reasonable accommodation, promotion, demotion, and reinstatement. Allegations of employment discrimination by persons with mental retardation were more likely to have merit in comparison to allegations by CPs with other disabilities. Implications for policy and advocacy are addressed.
Keywords: Workplace discrimination, mental retardation, disability, Americans with Disabilities Act
Abstract: This article provides data from the National EEOC ADA Research Project comparing several aspects of employment discrimination experienced by individuals with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) to that of a group of individuals with other physical, sensory or neurological impairments (GENDIS). Compared with GENDIS, the SCI group was younger with more males and fewer minorities. The SCI group had a significantly higher proportion of resolved complaints involving Hiring, Promotion and Reinstatement and a lower proportion of issues…involving Discharge, Reasonable Accommodation, Harassment, Discipline and Intimidation. Allegations of discrimination against people with SCI occurred more often in the Services and Public Administration industries, more often among small employers, and more often among employers located in the South. EEOC findings of "No Cause" in which full investigation fails to support the alleged violation are significantly less common in SCI than in GENDIS. SCI employers were more likely to accept those remedies proposed by the EEOC. Implications and recommendations regarding these findings are provided.
Abstract: There is a substantial lack of knowledge regarding the extent to which employment discrimination may be perceived or experienced by individuals with speech impairments. This investigation examined 1,637 such allegations of employment discrimination extracted as part of the National EEOC Americans with Disabilities Act research project. Allegations by individuals with speech impairments were compared to a group of individuals with orthopedic and visual impairments. The group with speech impairments consisted of a higher proportion…of males and younger individuals than the comparison group. There also were differences in the alleged discrimination issues for the two groups, most notably a higher proportion of allegations of harassment and a lower proportion of allegations related to reasonable accommodation in the group with speech-impairment. In addition, the proportion of allegations between the two groups differed with respect to industry type, employer region and employer size. The proportion of cases judged to have merit was similar across the two groups, but there were within group differences in the pattern of merit resolutions.
Keywords: Workplace discrimination, speech impairment, disability, Americans with Disabilities Act
Abstract: As part of the National EEOC ADA Research Project, the employment discrimination experience of Americans with cerebral palsy is examined. Researchers compare and contrast the key dimensions of workplace discrimination involving Americans with cerebral palsy and persons with other physical, sensory, and neurological impairments. Specifically, the researchers examine demographic characteristics of the charging parties; the industry designation, location, and size of employers against whom complaints are filed; the nature of discrimination (i.e.,…type of adverse action) alleged to occur; and the legal outcome or resolution of these complaints. Findings indicate that more allegations of discrimination were derived from persons with cerebral palsy if they were male, less than 39 years of age, and Caucasian. More allegations of discrimination were filed by persons with cerebral palsy when they worked for an employer whose industry designation involved Retail or Services. Finally, allegations involving persons with cerebral palsy were far more common when the complaint involved discrimination directly related to hiring.
Keywords: Workplace discrimination, cerebral palsy, disability, Americans with Disabilities Act
Abstract: Information from the Integrated Mission System of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was used to investigate the employment discrimination experience of Americans with multiple sclerosis (MS) in comparison to Americans with other physical, sensory, and neurological impairments. Specifically, the researchers examined demographic characteristics of the charging parties; the industry designation, location, and size of employers against whom allegations were filed; the nature of discrimination (i.e., type of adverse action)…alleged to occur; and the legal outcome or resolution of these allegations. Findings indicate that persons with MS were younger than the comparison group and comparatively overrepresented by Caucasians and women. People with MS were proportionally more likely than the comparison group to allege discrimination related to reasonable accommodations, terms or conditions of employment, constructive discharge, and demotion. People with MS were proportionally more likely than the comparison group to file allegations against employers in the service and financial/insurance/real estate industries, employers with 500 or more workers, and employers in the North United States Census region. People with MS were proportionally more likely than the comparison group to receive merit resolutions as a result of the EEOC's Americans with Disabilities Act Title I investigatory process. Implications for policy and advocacy are addressed.
Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, workplace discrimination, Americans with Disabilities Act
Abstract: This study investigates the nature, scope, and dynamics of employment discrimination among Americans with asthma using data from the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. When compared to a general disability group, higher proportions of employment discrimination allegations filed by persons with asthma involved females, African Americans, Native Americans, and people between 22 and 29 years of age. Allegations of employment discrimination were also greater for people with asthma for issues involving discipline,…harassment, reasonable accommodation, and suspension. Allegations involving asthma were more likely to occur among large Respondents (employers) with industry designations of finance/insurance/real estate, service, or public administration. Charging parties within the asthma group had proportionately fewer cases closed With Merit. Implications of these findings are offered related to training, research, policy, and advocacy.
Abstract: This article describes two recent innovations in small-N research design and illustrates how these novel designs apply to research in vocational rehabilitation. The first innovation, the range-bound changing criterion design, is nearly identical to the classic changing criterion except that the former design utilizes a range criterion – that is, an upper and lower limit – instead of a single-point criterion. The second design innovation, the distributed criterion design, incorporates elements of the…multiple baseline, reversal, and changing criterion designs. It is well suited to investigations where participants allocate time for multiple tasks and adjust their performance in response to changing environmental demands. By introducing these two recent innovations, this article expands options available to rehabilitation researchers who use small-N research designs.