Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume 9, issue 2
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Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine: An Interdisciplinary Approach is an international journal designed to parallel the multi-disciplinary team approach of caring for a child with an acute or chronic disease. The issues will primarily be themed and broad in scope including, but not be limited to cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina-bifida, amputation, muscular dystrophies of all types, stroke, cancer, mental retardation, developmental delays, and others.
The aim is to include a wide range of experts who care for children with the above diagnosis. Authorship by two different disciplines is requested though not required to encourage an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach. The goal is for the reader to obtain not just the medical perspective, but also nursing, occupational, physical and speech therapy, psychology, home care, etc., in providing the most comprehensive care for children. Manuscripts will be blinded and peer reviewed with appropriate feedback. Statistical analysis will be reviewed by the biostatistician. Readers are encouraged to submit and or suggest case reviews, commentaries, editorials, original research, conference schedules, or reviews.
Abstract: The use of therapeutic electrical stimulation for medical purposes is not new; it has been described in medical textbooks since the 18th century, but its use has been limited due to concerns for tolerance and lack of research showing efficacy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential clinical applicability, while clarifying the differences in electrical stimulation (ES) treatments and the theory behind potential benefits to remediate functional impairments in youth. The literature review was performed as follows: A total of 37 articles were reviewed and the evidence for use in pediatric diagnoses is reported.…The synthesis of the literature suggests that improvements in various impairments may be possible with the integration of ES. Most studies were completed on children with cerebral palsy (CP). Electrical stimulation may improve muscle mass and strength, spasticity, passive range of motion (PROM), upper extremity function, walking speed, and positioning of the foot and ankle kinematics during walking. Sitting posture and static/dynamic sitting balance may be improved with ES to trunk musculature. Bone mineral density may be positively affected with the use of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) ergometry. ES may also be useful in the management of urinary tract dysfunction and chronic constipation. Among all reviewed studies, reports of direct adverse reactions to electrical stimulation were rare. In conclusion, NMES and FES appear to be safe and well tolerated in children with various disabilities. It is suggested that physiatrists and other healthcare providers better understand the indications and parameters in order to utilize these tools effectively in the pediatric population. MeSH terms: Electrical stimulation; child; review.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) has been created to evaluate functional status, to assess therapeutic needs and changes after treatment in 2 to 18 years old children and adolescents who have orthopedic problems. The PODCI has three forms; parent form for children, parent and self report forms for adolescents. Instrument has 86 items assessing `upper extremity and physical function', `transfer and basic mobility', `sports and physical function', `pain/comfort', `happiness', `global functioning' and `expectations from treatment domains'. The PODCI has been validated in multiple languages. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of the…cross-cultural adapted Turkish version of the PODCI parent forms for children and adolescents in a variety of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. METHOD: This was a methodological study. The instrument was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Turkish. Turkish version was called Bedensel İşlevsellik Değerlendirme Aracı (BIDA). It was completed by the parents/caregivers of ninety-eight children and adolescents being treated at Marmara University Medical School Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation outpatient clinics at the baseline and 2-4 weeks after between April 2013-October 2013. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability (ICC) were determined. RESULTS: Internal consistency of the subscales and test/retest cronbach alpha values were 0.90-0.91 (r= 0.71, p= 0.000) for ``upper extremity and physical function''; 0.95-0.95 (r= 0.84, p= 0.000) for ``transfer and basic mobility''; 0.93-0.91 (r= 0.78, p= 0.000) for ``sports and physical functioning''; 0.77-0.82 (r= 0.45, p= 0.000) for ``happiness'' and 0.96-0.96 (r= 0.82, p= 0.000) for ``global functioning''. Pain/comfort subscale showed low internal consistency (-0.38-0.49; r= 0.34, p= 0.004). CONCLUSION: The Turkish version of the PODCI was found to be a reliable instrument to evaluate functionality of children and adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal disorders.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of DCD in children between ages of 6-15 years attending mainstream schools in a school district in southern India using criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). METHODS: A total of 2282 children, were screened with Kannada version of DCDQ'07. All the children who were identified as probable. DCD cases were defined by using inclusion (Criteria A, B and C) and exclusion criteria (D) of DSM-5 which are ascertained by specific tests. RESULTS: Nineteen (0.8%) children were identified as…DCD with girls (1.1%) affected more than boys (0.5%) at confidence interval of 95%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DCD using DSM-5 criteria is found to be 0.8% in Southern India. Girls were twice affected than boys.
Keywords: Motor skills disorders, prevalence, diagnosis, school children, health service
Abstract: PURPOSE: Because retinoblastoma typically arises at a very young age, children are particularly vulnerable to vision impairment, associated developmental delays, and functional limitations. Limited information is available describing developmental delay and functional limitations in this population, necessitating supportive services including rehabilitation. The aims of this study were to describe the participation of children with newly diagnosed retinoblastoma in an occupational therapy program that identifies children in need of rehabilitation services. We also identify indications for referral to rehabilitation services among children with newly diagnosed retinoblastoma and enumerate the likelihood of these children receiving the recommended services. METHODS:…Twenty-two children participated in longitudinal occupational therapy assessments during the first year after diagnosis. RESULTS: We recommended 1 or more types of rehabilitation services for 16 of 22 (72.7%) participants. Twelve of 16 (75%) received services. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this pilot study indicate that implementing a prospective occupational therapy-screening program is feasible and results in identification and initiation of therapy services in some children with retinoblastoma. Developmental screenings and follow-up of children with retinoblastoma is strongly recommended.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this proof of concept study is to demonstrate that electromyographic (EMG) activation patterns of leg muscles differ predictably among patients with predominantly spasticity, patients with predominantly dystonia, and typically developing control subjects during rest, volitional movement, and passively induced movement. METHODS: Eight control subjects, 6 subjects with dystonia, and 7 subjects with spasticity were recruited, ages 6-25 years. Surface EMG sensors were applied over 4 muscle groups of each leg. EMG recordings and video were obtained during rest, quick stretch, and volitional movement. The number of muscles active during 3 resting, 4…quick stretch, and 8 volitional movement items were averaged and compared across subject groups. RESULTS: Control subjects showed minimal numbers of muscles active during resting, quick stretch, or volitional movement activities. Spastic subjects showed multiple muscles responding with high amplitude to quick stretch but not to volitional movement activities. Dystonic subjects showed multiple muscles responding to volitional movement activities but not to quick stretch. Analysis with a Kruskal-Wallis test indicated significant differences between the three groups in numbers of muscles activated during quick stretch activities (p= 0.017) and volitional movement activities (p= 0.005). CONCLUSION: EMG data collected with this protocol may be useful for distinguishing spastic from dystonic hypertonia.
Abstract: PURPOSE: American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have the highest traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related mortality in the United States, but little is known about AI/AN children who survive traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study compares function and factors associated with discharge function between AI/AN and White children with TBI during inpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: Retrospective national cohort study of 114 AI/AN and 7,267 White children aged 6 months-18 years who received inpatient TBI rehabilitation between 2002-2012 at facilities utilizing the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation\scriptsize® . The outcome measure was developmental functional quotients (DFQ is the FIM\scriptsize®…or WeeFIM\scriptsize® score divided by age norms x 100) at discharge. RESULTS: AI/AN race was not associated with motor (regression coefficient (β) 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.39, 2.76) or cognitive (β -1.54, 95% CI -3.75, 0.67) function. Among a subgroup with loss of consciousness > 24 hours (AI/AN n= 13, White n= 643), AI/AN race was associated with lower motor DFQ (β -12.83, 95% CI -25.39, -0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, AI/AN race was not associated with inpatient rehabilitation function for children with TBI, but providers should not assume AI/ANs with more severe injuries have equitable outcomes.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of obtaining and comparing various methods of height and body composition (BC) measurements in children with spina bifida (SB). METHODS: Fifteen children (7M/8F) with SB (4-18 years old) underwent weight, four height measurements (arm span, wall-mounted stadiometer, segmental and recumbent length) and five BC measurements: (BMI; BodPod® ; DEXA; Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis; and skinfold). Data collectors, parents, and study participants evaluated procedures. The four heights as paired with the BC measurements were compared to the gold standard DEXA measurements. RESULTS: Procedures were successfully completed in 14 of 15…children. Skinfolds and segmental length had a midlevel ranking of comfort. While no measures substituted for the DEXA scan, preliminary findings suggest that an algorithm may estimate BC in this high-risk population. Currently, arm span used within BodPod® measurements provided the closest agreement with the DEXA scan. CONCLUSION: Study protocol was feasible and provided necessary information, including recommended modifications, for successful implementation of the planned subsequent study.
Keywords: Body composition, spina bifida, myelomeningocele, anthropometrics, height, BMI, pediatric
Abstract: PURPOSE: This case report examines the use of a custom neck orthosis following onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections for the treatment of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) that has not been responsive to conservative treatment or previous injections. METHODS: The patient was fitted for a custom neck orthosis following BoNT-A injections for refractory CMT. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with head tilt, cervical rotation, and neck passive range of motion (PROM) measurements. Parental reports of patient tolerance of the orthosis and family satisfaction of results were obtained through survey. RESULTS: With use of the orthosis following BoNT-A…injections, the patient's head tilt improved from 45° to an intermittent tilt of 10° and neck PROM to the left improved from 70° to 90°. He wore the neck orthosis for 8 to 10 hours per day for 3 months, experienced no major complications, and tolerated it well. On follow-up survey, the family reported satisfaction with the results. CONCLUSION: This case provides evidence that a custom neck orthosis after BoNT-A injection may be an effective treatment of refractory CMT before or replacing surgical intervention.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into parents' experiences of physical therapy and early mobility (EM) for their children in a pediatric critical care unit (PCCU). METHODS: We conducted a series of four qualitative case studies using in-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews. We recruited parents of children who had undergone surgery and received at least one EM physical therapy intervention while intubated. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews to illuminate the factors that influenced EM experiences. RESULTS: Four parents participated in the study. We developed an…overview of Parental Experiences with Physical Therapy and Early Mobility in a PCCU, which includes four themes that parents believed influenced their experiences: (1) environmental factors; (2) awareness of physical therapist and health care professional (HCP) roles; (3) communication among parents and HCPs; and (4) parental participation in their child's EM, within the overarching parental experiences in the PCCU. CONCLUSION: This study affords a preliminary understanding of parents' experiences with physical therapy and EM in a PCCU setting. Results provide an important foundation for future research on mobility in the context of pediatric critical care research and practice.
Keywords: Pediatric, children, intensive care, rehabilitation, early mobility, parent