Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume 3, issue 3
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Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine: An Interdisciplinary Approach is an international journal designed to parallel the multi-disciplinary team approach of caring for a child with an acute or chronic disease. The issues will primarily be themed and broad in scope including, but not be limited to cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina-bifida, amputation, muscular dystrophies of all types, stroke, cancer, mental retardation, developmental delays, and others.
The aim is to include a wide range of experts who care for children with the above diagnosis. Authorship by two different disciplines is requested though not required to encourage an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach. The goal is for the reader to obtain not just the medical perspective, but also nursing, occupational, physical and speech therapy, psychology, home care, etc., in providing the most comprehensive care for children. Manuscripts will be blinded and peer reviewed with appropriate feedback. Statistical analysis will be reviewed by the biostatistician. Readers are encouraged to submit and or suggest case reviews, commentaries, editorials, original research, conference schedules, or reviews.
Abstract: Objective: As orthoses, and particularly ankle-foot orthoses, are widely used in the management of children with motor disorders, including cerebral palsy, we aimed to study their effect in normal children in order to add to normative gait data, which are essential for diagnosing, understanding and treating abnormal gait patterns. Design: We analyzed the effect of ankle-foot orthoses on classical gait parameters and lower limb segments coordination patterns in typically developing children in two age…groups reflecting different neuromaturational/developmental situations. We recorded 3D kinematic gait patterns in 9 children (4–5 years) and 11 children (9–10 years) walking barefoot or wearing bilateral solid ankle-foot orthoses maintaining the ankle joint angle at a neutral position. Results: Ankle-foot orthoses induced little change in cadence, step length, step width or walking velocity in younger children, though they altered intralimb coordination through the gait cycle. In older children, walking velocity was reduced, shank elevation amplitude increased, while lower limb coordination changed less significantly. In this age group, ankle-foot orthoses significantly reduced the variability of coordinative strategies. Conclusion: Ankle-foot orthoses affect the gait pattern in children with a typical development at different levels in younger and older subjects, but the resulting changes are minimal.
Keywords: Gait, motor control, intersegmental coordination, ankle-foot orthoses, cerebral palsy
Abstract: Objective: Constraint-Induced Therapy (CIT) has been used in pediatric rehabilitation and targets upper extremity (UE) outcomes. The purpose of this study was to measure concurrent gross motor and lower extremity functional changes using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a modified UE CIT program. The Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was used to evaluate upper extremity outcomes. Design: Before-after trial design of a 19-day outpatient CIT program at Seattle Children's Hospital in Seattle,…WA, USA of six ambulatory children with spastic hemiparesis between the ages of 5 and 11 years with GMFCS scores of 1. GMFM Section D (Standing) and E (Walking, Running, Jumping) and AHA scores were obtained before and after a modified CIT program. Results: Significant differences were found between pre and post-CIT AHA and GMFM section D and E scores (p < 0.05). All children improved from baseline, yet the child with the lowest initial scores revealed the greatest improvements. Conclusions: Improvements in GMFM and AHA scores were noted after a modified CIT program. Such data suggests that CIT may also influence rehabilitation outcomes not only specific to the upper extremity and warrants further investigation.
Abstract: Objective: To describe the most prevalent conditions and their associated expenditures for the outpatient care of individuals with spina bifida (SB) of varying ages. Design: From a large health insurance claims database of people with private insurance, we examined records on outpatient health care received during 2005–2006 for individuals with SB and a matched comparison group. Chronic conditions from the most frequently recorded 4-digit ICD-9-CM codes for individuals with SB were grouped into four…categories: cardiovascular disease risk factors, SB secondary conditions, pain, and other symptoms. Results: Diseases affecting the nervous, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems and miscellaneous symptoms (e.g., headache, fever) account for about 70% of outpatient expenditures, excluding those associated with perinatal and congenital conditions. The most common and costly conditions by age group were diseases of the nervous system for children and adults younger than age 30 years and diseases of the musculoskeletal system for adults aged 30–64 years. Individuals with SB had significantly elevated risks for essential hypertension, urinary tract infection, and constipation at young ages and headache, sleep disturbance, and fever throughout the life span. Conclusions: The frequency of health conditions associated with SB varies across the life span. These conditions should be a priority for further investigations to identify risk factors, treatment and prevention strategies for individuals with SB.
Keywords: Spina bifida, rehabilitation, medical conditions, expenditures
Abstract: Objective: Transitioning from a bottle to open cup drinking can be a lengthy process in typical development. Children are often introduced to training cups during this period. Due to a lack of standardization in commercially available training cups, differences in design and performance characteristics may potentially create medical complications in developmentally delayed individuals. Our purpose is to report commercially available training cup design characteristics, residual fluid, flow rates, and suction pressures and…discuss the potential clinical implications. Design: A testing apparatus was developed to determine suction pressure and flow rate. Nine commercially available training cups were tested by two independent research teams. Experimental data were filtered and then fit with a linear approximation determined by a least squares method. Results: Commercially available cups exhibited extensive variability in design parameters, suction pressure, rate of flow, and residual fluid. Conclusion: The extensive variability of design and function within current commercially available cups has clinical implications for children with development delays such as the ingestion of air and aspiration. Studying the variability of existing training cup performance identifies characteristics that impact cup function which can influence future cup design.
Abstract: Objective: The routine clinical use of supported standing in hospitals, schools and homes currently exists. Questions arise as to the nature of the evidence used to justify this practice. This systematic review investigated the available evidence underlying supported standing use based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) Levels of Evidence framework. Design: The database search included MEDLINE, CINAHL, GoogleScholar, HighWire Press, PEDro, Cochrane Library databases, and APTAs Hooked on Evidence from January 1980 to…October 2009 for studies that included supported standing devices for individuals of all ages, with a neuromuscular diagnosis. We identified 112 unique studies from which 39 met the inclusion criteria, 29 with adult and 10 with pediatric participants. In each group of studies were user and therapist survey responses in addition to results of clinical interventions. Results: The results are organized and reported by The International Classification of Function (ICF) framework in the following categories: b4: Functions of the cardiovascular, haematological, immunological, and respiratory systems; b5: Functions of the digestive, metabolic, and endocrine systems; b7: Neuromusculoskeletal and movement related functions; Combination of d4: Mobility, d8: Major life areas and Other activity and participation. The peer review journal studies mainly explored using supported standers for improving bone mineral density (BMD), cardiopulmonary function, muscle strength/function, and range of motion (ROM). The data were moderately strong for the use of supported standing for BMD increase, showed some support for decreasing hypertonicity (including spasticity) and improving ROM, and were inconclusive for other benefits of using supported standers for children and adults with neuromuscular disorders. The addition of whole body vibration (WBV) to supported standing activities appeared a promising trend but empirical data were inconclusive. The survey data from physical therapists (PTs) and participant users attributed numerous improved outcomes to supported standing: ROM, bowel/bladder, psychological, hypertonicity and pressure relief/bedsores. BMD was not a reported benefit according to the user group. Conclusion: There exists a need for empirical mechanistic evidence to guide clinical supported standing programs across practice settings and with various-aged participants, particularly when considering a life-span approach to practice.
Abstract: Objective: To summarize the evidence for early mobilization programs in critically ill pediatric and adult patients with respiratory failure. This paper describes our review of the literature and outlines the morbidities associated with immobility, mechanical ventilation and sedation.The clinical management of acutely ill pediatric patients with respiratory failure traditionally consists of mechanical ventilation, sedation and prolonged immobilization. Although the most severely ill patients require these therapies for survival, each therapy comes with…adverse consequences. Early mobilization may reduce complications and confer benefit for children with respiratory failure or those who require prolonged mechanical ventilator support. Design: Systematic review of the literature pertaining to early mobilization in pediatric and adult patients with respiratory failure. We searched Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane database of controlled trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational cohort studies, case control studies and population-based analysis were considered for inclusion. Two reviewers (MM and EH) independently selected pertinent studies. Results: No studies of early mobilization in pediatric populations were found. Five adult studies were identified for review; two randomized controlled trials and three observational studies. All studies suggested an improvement in morbidity and economic benefit with implementation of early mobilization. Conclusions: Early mobilization in critically ill adult patients with respiratory failure is associated with a decrease in duration of sedatives, ventilator dependant days, ICU and hospital length of stay. The paucity of studies of early mobilization suggest that implementation of early mobilization is not widely practiced. Studies of early mobilization therapy in the adult patient requiring prolonged mechanical ventilator support are reviewed, and the physiologic rational and observed obstacles to integration of an early mobilization program are discussed. The adult data and scientific evidence are combined to support an opinion about the possible benefits of early mobilization programs. The generalizability of the findings and the feasibility of implementing early mobilization in critically ill children who require prolonged mechanical ventilator support are also considered.
Abstract: Objective: This report describes two pediatric patients undergoing acute inpatient rehabilitation for acquired brain injury. Design: The first patient was a 16-year-old African American female with an acquired brain injury from multiple intracranial hemorrhages secondary to an arteriovenous malformation. The second patient was a 16 year-old African American male who sustained a traumatic brain injury due to assault. In both cases, the patients had difficulty participating in therapy due to significant attention/arousal impairments.…Results: Both patients demonstrated functional improvements after the initiation of caffeine 80 mg daily. The first patient's function improved from being unable to communicate to being able to signal yes/no with thumb movements. The functional independence measurement (FIM) scores of the second patient improved dramatically after caffeine was initiated. His function improved from being totally dependent in ambulation, wheelchair ambulation, and communication to only requiring moderate assistance with ambulation and supervision with wheelchair ambulation and communication after 3 weeks of treatment. The second patient's attention/arousal and FIM scores declined when caffeine was stopped for 3 days and improved once administration of caffeine resumed. There were no adverse events reported for either patient. Conclusion: Caffeine is a safe and inexpensive neurostimulant that may be used to treat attention/arousal impairments. Additional research is warranted to determine criteria of use, optimal timing, duration, and dosing of caffeine administration and to investigate whether caffeine improves chronic functional outcomes after ABI in pediatric acquired brain injury patients.